HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) April 25-29, 2016
HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) April 25-29, 2016 HIST 1020
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April 2529, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM AND THE SOVIET UNION The Soviet Union was an empire of 15 separate nations; it was a multinational empire. The collapse of the Soviet Union refers to the breaking away of a number of nations from the large empire, leaving only Russia. o Warsaw Pact – a military alliance in response to NATO (unified the Soviet Union) There were major points when Eastern nations tried to break away from Soviet domination. The Hungarians tried early in 1956. Then, in Prague (Czechoslovakia) they tried to break away in 1968; this is referred to as Prague Spring. The uprisings were crushed. The Eastern nations always failed because of how violently the Soviets put down the uprisings. However, a number of causes led to the breakup of the Soviet Union: o Economic Failure – one of the major reasons the Soviet Union fell apart, in the 1980s things were not going well in Eastern Europe, the economies were not productive under Communism, there was no incentive for productivity, it was inefficient, they became debtor nations (Eastern Europe had to borrow money just to keep their governments afloat from the West) o Consumer Culture of West – the Westerners are shoppers, images of the West were getting harder to block, Easterners saw how well people were living in the West (material goods, homes, cars, etc.), this is going to make them highly unsatisfied with their governments Medical care, social services, income guaranteed, retirement guaranteed (Easterners got all of this under Communism, but they were not happy because they weren’t living lavishly like the West) o Unrest in Poland – people begin to form unions Solidarity – the leader was an electrician, Lech Walesa, this was an umbrella union, there were about 10 million people in it by 1980, this man became a national hero and the face of Solidarity, it became so big that the Polish government had to crack down and remove it, this idea was popular and didn’t go away (just underground) Pope John Paul II – endorsed solidarity and reform in Poland, after 1982 Solidarity is underground Gorbachev – became the leader of the Soviet Union, he was unlike any other leaders of the Soviet Union, he was welleducated (Lenin was the last leader to have a college degree), he was an attorney and young, he was charming, he was April 2529, 2016 not a Stalinist, he was warm and fuzzy, he was loved by the West and was open to changing Communism o Stalinist – (Stalinism), means harsh, removed, they are hardliners, old fashioned Communists o Glasnost – policy under Gorbachev, means “openness,” he wants critics of the government to speak up and share their thoughts/feelings, so people felt for the first time that they could express their unrest and unhappiness with the government (Gorbachev is still a Communist, he just recognizes that he has to change it a bit to make it work, he was inspired by Lenin’s NEP, he is all for product incentive, he argued privatization and market forces) o Perestroika – a revolution of the mind, it is a program to promote efficiency and productivity, he brought in foreign economies, promoted profit incentives, there were major obstacles to change: Price of goods Little incentive for productivity Massive investment needed for modernization – there needed to be a massive infusion of cash, its infrastructure needed modernized Downfall of Communism/Soviet Union triggers – these are the fundamental issues that lead to the fall o Nationalist movements emerged – these were the “breakaway” republics, they were the first to go (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Georgia > these are Balkan States), these national movements trigger the fall o Democratic Opposition – Gorbachev allowed people to express themselves, so a very vocal movement of democratic opposition came to head Andrey Sakharov – Russian physicist, led this opposition to Russian control Alekxandr Solzhenitsyn – was also a large critic o Economic Crisis in 1988 – this also helped to bring down the government Changing relations between the U.S. (and Western European Nations) and the U.S.S.R. – there had been arms talks before with some limited success, but they got real under Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan, this allowed improvements to happen (in 1987 they signed a major arms control agreement, each side cut back on its threat of nuclear weapons, etc.), Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister of England) was also a proponent of this time, the three of them became “buddies,” the talks were so peaceful and productive, this was the beginning of new relations with the Soviet Union, this is sort of the end of the Cold War and the “Iron Curtain,” the Soviet Union was opening up to the west April 2529, 2016 o Chernobyl – a nuclear reactor site located in the Ukraine that exploded, it was a nuclear disaster in 1986 when the Ukraine was still part of the Soviet Union, before they would have hidden/covered this from the West, but instead Gorbachev made them aware and let them see what was happening, this WestEast relationship was very good The Eastern Nations became independent under Gorbachev (around 1989), he realized that it was time to let them go, but there were governments within these nations that were bound and prepared to react, Poland finally became free of the Soviet Union and had a complete governmental change because of the Solidarity, they worked through Solidarity to gain seats in the Parliament and vote the Soviets out, this was done at great personal risk, Czechoslovakia students and intellectuals led the way, in East Germany the government was deeply entrenched and did not want to see any erosion of Communist power, it was the old refugee problem again, the Germans saw how much better it was in the West so they began fleeing once again (they fled to Hungary then elsewhere because of the Berlin Wall), this process started and continued for months and became an embarrassment for the German government, they were forced to open the gates of the Berlin Wall (this was the great symbol of the fall of Communism), the West watched with interest and emotion as the Berlin wall was opened up and would soon be destroyed LATIN AMERICA SINCE 1945 This is a Cold War battleground. Economic change and the want for economic change were paramount in Latin America. Their economy was based on exporting goods to Europe and America. It’s not good for an economy to be based just on exporting (it’s not balanced and it’s susceptible to changes in the market). After WWII (1945), the major initiative on the Latin American government was to fix the economy. It tried to boost the agricultural economy; they tried to produce a more productive/stable economy (one that raises living conditions in the area). The social structure has changed too: mainly the middle class. There is a huge gap between the wealthy landowners and their employees, but this is thrown off with the growing middle class. People are living more and more in cities. There was instability in the government after 1945. There were revolutions and coups. A lot of the countries experienced left wing policies and dictatorships. The volatility was result of the effort to change the economy and fix poverty. More recently, in the 1990s, there has been more of a trend away from dictatorships and towards democratic regimes. The Catholic Church also played a major role in Latin America and so did Protestant denominations. In the 1970s1980s, there was an idea: April 2529, 2016 o Liberation Theology – a movement among priests and nuns in Latin America, it was a theology of social activism, it combines traditional Christian concern for the poor with elements of Marxist (Socialist) ideology, these monks and nuns are out there working with people, Protestant denominations have also started helping in this Guatemala – one of the first places to exhibit these characteristics o Population was mostly Indian, illiterate, and lived very poorly, they worked for a handful of very wealthy landowning families o Were one of the exporter nations (exported coffee and bananas) o 1944 – Arevalo came to power and he wanted to address the poverty of Latin America, he embarked on some of the reforms, he tried to start socialist reforms and land reform, he starts by just trying to improve labor conditions, he was a nationalist and this caused conflict with this group: United Fruit Company – were an American company that exported fruit to the U.S. and elsewhere, they owned enormous plots of land o In 1951, Arbenz was elected president of Guatemala, he is more radical, he begins nationalizing companies, he said if land is owned but not being used then the uncultivated land would be taken by the government and redistributed as small farms to poorer people, this made the United Fruit Company very angry and they complain to the U.S. government and what the U.S. government did was put a group together (army) and they went in and overthrew Arbenz Cuba – another example of a place that showed this characteristics o Was a place of incredible poverty, had a major export (sugar cane), going into the 1950s most of the population was in the countryside and poor, the cities did have a growing middle class in them, the cities became the playground for Americans (Havana), there is a lot of American business influence here, they have invested and own a lot of property in Cuba o Batista – in power in Cuba from 1934 for a long time, he worked to make Cuba better, but when it came down to it, he did nothing, he really just became a dictator and nothing really was solved o Castro – emerged as a revolutionary, in 1953 he was put on the map, he was an attorney but became a revolutionist, he leads a small uprising and is put in prison but then moves to Mexico and hooks up with: Che Guevara – revolutionary, from Argentina, he and Castro become a team and return to Cuba in 1958 o They led a revolution in Cuba, by 1961 Castro had bad relations with the U.S., land reform was finally given to the farmers by the creation of collectivized farms, Castro also nationalized industry and more, they now have good quality health care and education, the problem with this April 2529, 2016 revolution was that it never revitalized the economy, Cuba became very dependent on foreign aid from Russia, then when the Soviet Union fell apart Cuba kind of did too, today there have been negotiations between the U.S. and Cuba Chile – another example with these characteristics o 1960s, it was not like Guatemala or Cuba, it had a more stable democracy, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s it was having some issues with the economy, the number one export was copper, there was a huge American interest in Chile o Allende – elected president of Chile, he is a Socialist, he campaigns that he’ll address all the economy problems, there are bad relations between Allende and his parliament, he can’t get the legislation through parliament so he resorts to rule by decree (Enabling Act), it gave him dictatorial power, his policies were very unpopular among American corporations o Nixon was president of the U.S. at this time and became deeply involved in a military overthrow of Allende with the Chileans, they also bombed the presidential palace and assassinated him Junta – government by a committee/group, a military Junta comes to power General Pinochet – he emerges as the dictator of Chile but is ousted eventually o Under Pinochet, civil rights and liberties didn’t exist under Pinochet, people disappeared, it came a human rights issue Nicaragua – another example o Since the 1930s to the 1970s the family of Somoza (father then son) had been the presidents of Nicaragua, this family owned ¼ of the land in Nicaragua, in 1972 there was a huge earthquake in Nicaragua and lots of nations sent money, the Somoza family stole the foreign aid money that had been sent to help them rebuild, the opposition voices to them began to emerge in the early 1960s Sandinistas – were socialists that protested Somoza (antiSomoza), they try to change Nicaragua, the Somozas hated them and were very hostile toward them o Chamorro – a journalist, published antiSomoza material and he ends up being assassinated o The U.S. was interested and increasingly involved here, they didn’t want leftists/socialists/Marxists coming to power, and the Fruit Company didn’t want to lose land o Ortega – is put into power, this concerns the U.S. government and the Fruit Company is upset by his raise to power, he leads a socialist program April 2529, 2016 that included land reform (would take huge land owned by single families and pay the family then split it up for the peasants, they based the compensation on taxes), the Fruit Company didn’t keep good land so they could avoid high taxes and this came back and bit them, the U.S. then got more involved because they were worried about Communism here Contras – U.S. effort (antiOrtega/antiSandinista) vs. the Sandinistas, as a compromise they held elections and the widow of Chamorro was chosen as a more modern candidate and president, but Ortega came back to power