Chapter 2 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Bradfield on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
V. Political Evolution of Polis: Athens a. Cylon’s coup d’etat b. Draco c. Solon: lowered property requirements to participate in the political process, introduced reform and trial by jury d. Pisistratus: important to evolution of democracy because he didn’t change the actual government but operated behind the scenes like a tyrant and dictator. He wanted to alleviate social and economic problems in regards to the lower classes, charging the noblemen that protested against him and took their land to delve out to the lower class when they fled. This brought alert to the need of democratic reform. e. Cleisthenes: reforms institutions of government to make it more democratic, dividing Athenians into ten tribes that got 50 counselors that sat on the Council of 500. Most democratic point in Athenian history VI. Sparta a. Monarchy: didn’t experience democratization and remained a monarchy b. Threat of slave uprising: Sparta had expanded and enslaved populations of helots in their land, causing them to oppress against Sparta c. Spartan militarism: super militaristic culture caused by the threat of slave uprising, all aspects of society were geared towards the army. Little boys were taken from their families at 7 and sent to schools to be trained for the military. They did this among the little girls too so that they would raise militaristic children. Hellenic Culture (golden age for Greek philosophy) I. The Wars a. Persian: Greek city states and Persian empire were at war because the Persian empire was trying to exert control over the Greek city states. Athens first defends the city states and caused an alliance between the others (called the Delian League) and defeats the Persian Empire and they back off. b. Peloponnesian: war between Athens and Sparta because of Athens’ policies. Athens’ leader Pericles is in charge of the alliance and their money, beginning expansion and remodeling of Athens, using Delian League money. Sparta defeats Athens, causing Athens to lose their democracy and have a government put in place by Sparta. II. Philosophy: originally looked at things less in terms of the gods (supernaturally) and rather natural causes rationally a. Socrates: from Athens, a moralist concerned with right and wrong and how to live a good life. Believed that self-reflection was important, “Know Thyself” and that the unexamined life wasn’t worth living without reflecting upon yourself. People were bad because of ignorance and lack of thinking about their actions, “Knowledge is Virtue”. He also educated the people of Athens to his optimistic views. Convention and tradition weren’t good enough. He wrote The Socratic Method, where someone questions another and uses b. Plato: Socrates’ student, idealist, believed that everything you perceive is just a copy of reality. c. Aristotle: Plato’s student, and polar opposite. Aristotle is an empiricist and believes that real things have to be perceived through observation and that matter is given purpose not a separate meaning. His ideas were formed from syllogism, a form of deductive logic in which there are three steps: major premise, minor premise, and inescapable conclusion. III. Drama a. Aeschylus: known primarily for The Orestia b. Sophocles: known for The Story of Oedipus: guilty of hubris (excessive pride) Hellenistic Civilization I. Alexander’s Empire a. Rise of Macedon: led by Philip II, who took Macedon’s weak kingdom and unifies it and goes on the warpath. He attacks the south and gains control before he dies. b. Alexander the Great: takes on Persian Empire to expand and later dies. c. Successors to Alexander II. Hellenistic Civilization a. General Characteristics: sophisticated, cosmopolitan, promoting Greek through language and culture b. Process of Hellenization c. Philosophy i. Stoicism: Zeno encouraged people to make their way through life with as little emotion as possible, accept and endure. He believed that there was a rational order to the universe. ii. Epicureanism: like hedonism today, Epicurus encouraged seeking the pleasures of life, inspired by Democritus. iii. Skepticism: Pyrrho expressed doubt about knowledge on the nature of the universe, encouraged traditional beliefs. d. Science: mathematical and scientific traditions with near East, Greeks, and Indians. i. Euclid created a book on geometry The Elements of Geometry. ii. Eratosthenes used geometry to calculate the circumference of the Earth. iii. Aristarchus thought that the sun was the center of the universe, the heliocentric theory. iv. Archimedes calculated the value of pi and was extremely important to mathematical and scientific developments. Had the “eureka” moment discovering how to measure volume, gravity, etc. Most brilliant scientific mind.
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