Popular in World History 1
Popular in History
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Bradfield on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
II. Egypt a. Influence of the Nile: unifies politically and logistically, like an interstate highway system. Egypt is generally politically sheltered and on its own, somewhat isolated from most aggressor movements from by the desert and the Red Sea. Protected from invaders, unlike Mesopotamia. Extremely beneficial economically and agriculturally. The Nile flows South to North and finds the Mediterranean (Nile delta). Flooded every spring by rain and carry silt (topsoil) which fertilizes farmlands by October, this is predictable and can allow families to develop a positive outlook on the world. b. Pharaoh: tremendous power and authority, early political unification, divine/godlike, central to well-being in current and afterlife, mummification developed in order to keep body intact so that the soul can survive and the pharaoh can continue to work on their behalf in the afterworld, theme of stability vs. anarchy, pharaoh provided a sense of stability. c. Pyramids: They buried him in the pyramid, as a tomb or burial site for the pharaoh. Ex. Great Pyramid (Khufu) – Gizeh, huge and solid, different sizes (around 2 tons or more), huge engineering and architectural achievement for the society, constructed on slave labor, took about 2 decades and possibly 100,000 workers as physical evidence of pharaoh’s importance to the society d. Religious beliefs: polytheistic, took various forms for one or multiple gods; force of nature, animals, etc. The Sun god (Re/Ra) had extreme importance and focus, source of life. Osiris, Isis, and Horus were a family of gods that gradually gained importance over time in Egyptian society. Osiris was the father figure and represented water and power of the Nile, Isis was the mother figure representing reproductive power, Horus represented vegetation and union of life. Osiris began to be related to the concept of the afterlife. Went from believing that only the pharaoh could have an afterlife to the possibility of everyone who has led a decent life could have an afterlife. They believed that at the moment of death, Osiris would judge them and weigh their soul against the feather of truth. If the soul was heavy with sin, it would be devoured by a monster and if it was light, it would go on to the afterlife. They created a Book of the Dead: a series of prayers and rituals to assist and prepare them for life. e. Hieroglyphics: system of writing, around 600 characters, less complex than Mesopotamia’s system of writing. Consisted of many pictures, originating from objects themselves and then rotating. Best for efficiency and speed in simpler forms derived from original object. Often stolen and sold for money. We couldn’t read it until the early 19 th century and didn’t know anything about Egyptian society either until they learned to decode hieroglyphics. France and Britain were at war and Napolean commanded French troops in Egypt to cut off connection with Britain. They discover the Rosetta stone (containing hieroglyphics) with three bands with the same text in three different writing systems; hieroglyphics, Greek, and cursive hieroglyphics. A Frenchman who could read Greek discovered the meaning of the text on the rock and finally gained access to Egyptian history. They tended to write on papyrus rather than paper or clay tablets. After this, the West became obsessed with Egyptian history, culture, and style. As a result of the decoding of hieroglyphics, we learned of a pharaoh named Akhenaton who was a monotheist that only believed in a sun god that was not Ra/Re. He decided that he would worship his sun god and everyone else would worship him and imposed this upon the people and expunge any reference to other gods. Complete forced religious revolutionary attempt and it failed miserably. King Tut (Tutankhamon) reverses all of Akhenaton’s work and restores the original religious tradition and beliefs. King Tut’s tomb was found very intact until it’s discovery and became the basis of a very famous museum exhibit in Egypt, later sent to the U.S. as the King Tut exhibit, only furthering the West’s obsession with Egypt. Considered the first blockbuster exhibit in the U.S. due to its huge popularity and intrigue. Increased the going of museums in the U.S. altogether. f. Periodization of Egyptian History i. Old Kingdom: Egypt is becoming Egypt and developing in isolation ii. Middle Kingdom: life becomes complicated and outsiders begin to invade (Hyksos) that come into the Nile Delta area as semitic people. Later expelled by the leaders of the 18 Dynasty (with Akhenaton and Tutankhamen) iii. New Kingdom: