BMS_260_Week_14_Notes.pdf BMS 260
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 260 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Russell Anthony in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Biomedical Sciences in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Sex differentiation By default babies are female Presence of SRY gene on the y chromosomes leads to the primordial gonads Sertoli cells – mullerian inhibiting substance and mullerian regression Leydig cells – testosterone – leads to the wolffian ducts transforming into the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and the ejaculatory duct Ditestoserone – development into the penis, scrotum, prostate Absences of SRY gene Differentiation into fetal ovaries Absence of MIS leads to transform to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and inner vagina Absence of testosterone Wolffian ducts regression and development of the outer vagina female external genitalia Reproductive Ducts Wolffian Epidymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles Mullerian Fallopian tubes (oviducts), uterus, cervix and anterior vagina Urogenital sinus Female is part of vagina and urethra Male is urethra, prostate, bulbourethral glands Genital tubercle Female – clitoris Male – penis Vestibular folds Female – vulva Male – foreskin and scrotum Male anatomy Scrotum Derived from vestibular folds Outer skin providing protection for the testes Tunica dartos Connective tissue and smooth muscle cells Important for temperature regulation of the sperm Testes Very outside Tunica albuginea Fibrous capsule around the testes Trabecule Fibrous cords that divide the testes into regions Mediastinum testis Central fibrous cords Seminiferous tubules Location of spermatogenesis (gametes) Sertoli cells Collect into the rete testis Rete testis Continuous with epididymis Epididymis Caput (head) Corpus (body) Cauda (tail) Sperm is stored in the cauda epididymis Movement is passive Active motility only occurs after mixing with seminal plasma Undergoes capacitation (develops its ability to fertilize; 6hrs) Maturation of the sperm to have the capacity to fertilize Vas deferens Pair will join at the ampulla (basically at the prostate) spermatic cord leaves the scrotum and enters the body through the inguinal canal testicular artery and vein as well as lymphatic vesicles internal and external cremaster muscles that allow the raise and lowering of the testes in order to maintain temperature regulation temperature is critical for spermatogenesis testicular arteries and veins coil around each other forming the pampiniform plexus provides for heat exchange 2 seminal vesicles (vesicular glands) 1 prostate 2 bulboureathral glands penis crus attached to the ischial arch of the pelvis corpus glans corpus cavernosum – top of penis corpus spongiosum – below the penis inside the body near the testes surrounds the urethra makes up most of the glans penis will dilate through addition of nitrous oxide Viagra or Cialis Phosphodiesterase inhibitor type5 NO receptor is cGMP coupled Spermatocyte – mature form Head – nuclear material Acrosome – modified lysosome to break down the surface of the egg Post acrosomal cap Midpiece Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondria Centriole and fibrils (start in midpiece and carry down into the tail- provide for flagellar movement of the tail with the energy generated by the mitochondria) Effects of testosterone in the male Initiate and maintain spermatogenesis Decreases GnRH secretion vis an action on the hypothalamus Inhibits LH secretion via a direct action on the anterior pituitary gland Stimulates erythropoietin secretion by the kidneys Spermatogenesis Spematogonium Stem cell Go to primary spermatocyte through mitosis to secondary through meiosis then spermatids through meiosis and then spermatozoa through differentiation Spermatids go through differentiation that lose most of the water cytoplasm and glycogen in differentiation to the spermatozoon Sertoli cells Provide cell barrier to chemicals Nourish developing sperm Secrete luminal fluid, including androgen-binding protein Respond to stimulation by testosterone and FSH to secrete paracrine agents that stimulate sperm proliferation and differentiation Inhibin secretes – inhibits FSH secretion from the pituitary gland Phagocytize defective sperm Secrete mullerian inhibiting substance Female Germinal epithelium Single layer of flattened epithelial cells on the outer surface of the ovary Starting cell type of ovarian cancer – one of the deadliest forms Tunica albuginea Cortex Germ cells Medulla Blood and nerves come into the central region of the ovary Continuous with the Hillus stalk of the ovary continuous with the mesovarium broad ligament supports the entire female reproductive system reproductive tract fallopian tube or oviduct fimbria – catcher’s mitt infundibulum – opening into the fallopian tubes ampulla isthmus provide for the ovum to move into the uterus and provides a site of fertilization and place for movement of the sperm within the woman mesosalphinx uterus cornua – horns corpus – body neck – cervix perimetrium – serosa lining attaches to broad ligament – mesometrium myometrium – thin, longitudinal smooth muscle layer, thick circular layer of Smooth muscle endometrium – mucosal layer epithelial lining of lumen glands stroma – connective tissue Meiosis in the female Oogonia Mitosis differentiation Primary oocyte 1 division arrest at birth secondary oocyte 2 nddivision completed at fertilization ovum differentiation into primary oocytes occurs before birth meiosis 1 is initiated before birth after puberty, meiosis 1 will continue but only in a handful of oocytes/cycle complete meiosis 1 at the time of ovulation meiosis 2 begins but is not completed until fertilization takes place Guest Lecture Major in Molecular Biology with a Minor in Mathematics Be persistent!!!! UCSD undergrad research PhD in neuroscience in ion channels, electrophysiology, genetics Voltage gated channels in drosophila Post doc UCSD, signal transduction and organization of signaling molecules First faculty position at Boston University Now at CSU 8 years later Ion channels – why? Simpler genome Characterize ion channel function, role in cell physiology, subcellular location Correlate to behavior Examine role in dysfunctional/disease states Genetic tools that allow you to study ion channel in native cells, in vivo AB Accumulation in Alzheimer’s disease AB accumulation and aggregation – leads to brain degradation?? Increase both silent and hyperactive neurons Fuse to signal sequence and can mimic effects of AD AB42 induces down-regulation of Kv4 in the MBs of the intact adult brain You can reduce the hyperactivity in AB42 by transgenic expression of Kv4 Drosophila can be trained to associate odor with sugar and thus can track Kv4 expression and learning association in different regions in the brain AB can restore learning when Kv4 is artificially added back into the brain AB 42 expression in a young fly doesn’t really show problems but with age locomotor problems becomes a problem AB 42 over expression induces an increase in neuronal excitability and an age-dependent loss of Kv4 protein and current