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PSYC Ch. 13

by: Kristen Pruett

PSYC Ch. 13 Psych100

Kristen Pruett

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About this Document

Chapter 13 Social Psychology
General Psychology
Kristen Begosh
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
Chapter 13  Social Psychology     Social Thinking  ­ Social psychology: scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to each  other  ­ Fundamental attribution error  ­ Attribution theory: explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or  the person's disposition    ­ Hostile child   ­ Aggressive personality? ­ disposition  ­ Stress or abuse? ­ situation  ­ When analyzing another's behavior, underestimate impact of situation and  overestimate personal disposition  ­ More pronounced in western (individualistic) cultures than easter (collectivistic)  culture   ­ Observations of self vs. other  ­ Effects of attribution ­ personal, political, employment       self  other  Positive attribute  Personal disposition  situation  Negative attribute  situation  Personal disposition    ­ Attitudes and action  ­ Attitudes: feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose out reactions  to objects, people, and events  ­ Attitudes affect actions  ­ Inconvenient truth   ­ Central route to persuasion: focus on arguments and respond with  favorable thoughts  ­ Peripheral route to persuasion: influenced by incidental cues (e.g.  speaker’s attractiveness)   ­ Social pressures   ­ Actions affect attitudes  ­ Attitudes follow behavior (i act therefore i believe)   ­ Foot in the door phenomenon: the tendency for people who have first  agreed to a smaller request to comply later with a larger request  ­ Role: set of expectations (norms) norms socal position, defining how  those in the position ought to behave   ­ Person­situation interaction  ­ Cognitive dissonance: relief from tension  ­ When our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience  tension  ­ Bring attitudes into line with actions  Social Influence  ­ Conformity: complying with social pressure  ­ Automatic mimicry  ­ Chameleon effect: mimic the behaviors, dress, feelings, and language of  those around us   ­ Empathetic people mimic more  ­ People who mimic more liked  ­ Conformity and social norms  ­ Conformity ­ adjusting behavior or thinking towards group standards  ­ Most likely to conform when:  ­ Feel incompetent/insecure  ­ Group has 3 or more people   ­ Everyone else in the group agrees ­ give same wrong answer   ­ Admire group’s status and attractiveness  ­ Haven’t made prior commitment to response  ­ Know others in group will observe our behaviors  ­ Reasons for conferring  ­ Normative social influence ­ avoid rejection/gain social approval  ­ Informal social influence ­ resulting from willingness to accept others’  opinions about reality  ­ Obedience: following order  ­ Milgram experiment    ­ Highest when:  ­ Person giving orders was in close proximity and perceived to be authority  figure  ­ Authority figure perceived to be associated with prestigious institution  ­ Victim was depersonalized/distant  ­ No models for defiance  ­ Foot in the door phenomenon    ­ Gro ​p behavior  ­ social facilitation: strong responses on simple or well­learned tasks in presence of  others  ­ Social loafing: people in group exert less effort when pooling efforts toward  attaining common goal than they would when individually accountable   ­ Deindividuation – loss of self­awareness and self­ restraint in group situations that  foster arousal and anonymity (e.g. “mob mentality”)  ­ Group Polarization – enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through  discussion within the group   ­ Groupthink: tendency for members of a group to think alike and suppress dissent   ­ Symptoms  ­ Illusions of vulnerability  ­ Self­censorship  ­ Pressure on dissenters to conform  ­ Illusions of unanimity   ­ Minimized if leader  ­ Rewards doubt/dissent  ­ Protects minority opinions  ­ Asks for as many ideas as possible  ­ Has group members think of disadvantages of proposed decision  Social relations  ­ Prejudice  ­ Strong unreasonable dislike or hatred of group based on negative stereotype  ­ 3 components  ­ Beliefs (stereotypes)   ­ Emotions   ­ Predispositions for action (e.g discrimination ­ negative behavior)  ­ Isms (racism, ageism, sexism, heterosexism)  ­ How prejudiced are people?  ­ Overt vs. covert prejudice  ­ Covert is more subtle  ­ Social roots of prejudice  ­ Social inequalities  ­ Just­world phenomenon  ­ Good things happen to good people; bad things happen to  bad people  ­ Us and them: ingroup and outgroup  ­ Ingroup heterogeneity  ­ Outgroup homogeneity  ­ Emotional roots of prejudice  ­ Scapegoat theory ­ theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by  proving someone to blame  ­ Cognitive roots of prejudice   ­ Forming categories   ­ Remembering vivid cases  ­ Believing the world is just   ­ Altruism  ­ Bystander intervention  ­ Bystander effect ­ tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to  give aid if other bystanders  ­ Diffusion of responsibility ­ responsibility is shared among individuals  ­ The norms for helping  ­ Social exchange theory ­ theory that our social behavior is an exchange  process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs  ­ Reciprocity norm ­ expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who  have helped them  ­ social ­responsibility norm ­ expectation that people will help those  dependent on them  


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