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Week of April 25-29

by: Callisa Ruschmeyer

Week of April 25-29 ENGL 2250 - 001

Callisa Ruschmeyer
GPA 4.0

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Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Emily Dickinson Final Review Debrief
American Literature before 1865
Julia Tigner
Class Notes
harper, Dickinson, american, Literature, Tigner, final
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Callisa Ruschmeyer on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 2250 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Julia Tigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see American Literature before 1865 in Foreign Language at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
th th April 25 -29 Frances Ellen Watkins Harper’s Poetry What is thematic connection between each of the poems assigned? How is this theme evolved in on one of the poems?  Emotional side of slavery (demonstration of humanity) and its consequences o "Learning to Read" is not about slavery, but cannot read due to being enslaved for so long  Attempt to overcome predicament (slavery) o All discuss challenges  Relationships- family ties being broken o Slaves do not have the opportunity to maintain relationships o Child being sold at an auction  Freedom o "She was nearing the river…she heeded no danger…and she'll give him his freedom…" o "Her "star-spangled banner" -o'er millions of slaves?"  Also talks about children within all of the poems o Children = innocents "The Slave Mother" (1176-1179)  Emotional side of slavery o Mother feels helpless- their children are not their own, but their master's o Why are we generally connected to mothers more than fathers- Mother has the child- connection is internal from day one  Because she was a slave, she was not able to own anything- her child is not truly her child in regards to ownership  What historical context brings in the idea that slaves are property- not humans o 3/5ths compromise o Dred Scott decision  Connection to Jacobs- visits children and feels like she has failed her children; she does not go North originally because of her children  Connection to Wheatley- page 458 from "Earl of Dartmouth"- first stanza on that page- the child being snatched from the mother's arms- fear that the slave mother has that her child will be taken from her "Eliza Harris" (1179-1180)  Who was she…? o Character in Uncle Tom's Cabin o Privileged slave of the Shelby's and a devout Christian o Marries while in slavery o Tries to escape to the north o Fugitive Slave Acts affect her o Is reunited with her husband later  Children's innocence's are lost  References very popular American reference to bring people together  Phillis Wheatley- same theme of slavery and freedom; political references- Star-spangled banner  Harriet Jacobs- does not want to be submissive; narrative about breaking free and their escape o "out and away" o Same story, just a different view- Jacobs wrote about herself after the fact; Harper writes about Harris during the act of escaping o Slave mother- understands the similar troubles  Sojourner Truth- more advocates for woman, but similar theme of rising above oppression o Truth is more emotion-evoking due to speech o Slave mother- speaks about seeing children sold into slavery "Learning to Read" (1183-1184)  Attempt to break free from oppression- despite of not being allowed to read, slaves did eventual risk their safety to gain their knowledge  Consequences of slavery- slaves were not allowed to read  Gives example of slaves who try to steal the knowledge to learn how to read  Education at the forefront  Post slavery- how will freed slaves integrate into society  Historical Reconstruction- education is at the forefront  Connection to Wheatley- both radical that they were black, female slaves writing literature; discusses about reading the Bible (religious references)- Wheatley uses the Bible in her writing as well o More optimistic stance- "we have our religion, so things must be getting better"; beckon of hope  The speaker, Chloe, is more like Wheatley- not necessarily Harper o Wheatley is more ironic  Connection to Jacobs in the very last stanza (lines 40-43) o Jacobs finds freedom in the thought of one day owning a home o Chloe finds freedom in her home- she has the home o Husbands and kings are not mentioned at all in regards to freedom  This defies the tradition during the 19th century "Bury Me in a Free Land" (1184-1185)  Call to action  Asks to be buried in a free land- the last thing she wants is to be buried in a land of slaves  Most people are indifferent where they are buried, but it matters deeply to her the land, but not the specific place Individual vs. Society  Slave mother  Eliza Harris- underscores escaping slave women  Chloe - underscores the former experiences of a slave woman not being able to read  Anonymous speaker  Group centered: shedding light on slave women's experiences and former slave experiences Harper's America  Equality  Justice  Treating blacks like real people  Freedom  Education for blacks- extension of equality- access to education for all  How does her America compare to other visions of America? o Other people's visions are more hopeful- Harper thinks the world is very cruel  Whitman is more optimistic Emily Dickinson: 280, 303, 712, 1129 280  Death of a thought or feeling  Heaven is ringing in your ear  Talking about different perspectives  Funeral = this thought has died  Focused on death  Because she is a woman, she cannot use her brain to its full capacity, so her ideas might as well be dead 303  In an arranged marriage- thinks of marriage as a trap  The man controls all  The institution suppresses woman  Idea of majority thought vs. minority thought  Tradition impedes growth 712  Puts her entire life into one day  Looking at the phases of life  Death is a gentleman  Very straightforward poem- more lucid and clear 1129  People cannot handle the truth  "slant"- lying by omission exclude details  It might be the truth to you, but everyone's personalities scatter reality o My truth is different than your truth --> then extend that to truth being synonymous to experience Final Exam Debrief  For the final- students can determine what the exam will cover  For next class, come up with an essay question that encompasses at least 3-4 authors and their works o Advocate for a cause Part 1: Short Answer  Questions will be based off of what the class revisits Part 2: Passage Identification  Similar to midterm  Passages will be identified for us  Although, context may help you arrive at the significance  Different than midterm o Significance- plot themes o Thematic Connection- why is it important for American History Part 3: Essay  We will be given the prompts  Topics a. How they highlight the view of Transcendentalism  Make sure you review the definition of Transcendentalism b. Religion  The prompt looks long, but it just gives a variety of items to talk about c. What is America? d. Gender  How they introduce the issue  How it affected literary imagination  Different types of writings  Then compare male vs. female perspectives and how differently they tell the same story Random Review  Know what Poe says about the climax of his poem, "the Raven"  Obsession of dead, beautiful women o "The Birthmark" o "The Raven" Thoreau  Civil disobedience- different people in society  Connects to Emerson  Civil Disobedience- disobeying but not to cause war and havoc- but more like silent protesting  Do not pay taxes- how the theme resonates in other texts o Disobey the law when the law is unjust o Ended it to Frederick Douglas and how he ran away o If the law is unjust, you can fight against it  Know the three reasons why he should not pay his taxes Emerson  Forget about organized religion and government  A real man follows who he is  Rely on oneself- be self-reliant  He is a transcendentalist o Him, Thoreau and Whitman  Paragraph 7- "He who is a man must be..." o There are three of them  Difference between city doll and sturdy lad Poe  Throughout "The Raven"- understand how he uses poetry to convey his emotions (denial) of his wife, Lenore o He uses repetition to establish his tone  Know about the climax of the story and why it is significant Women Writers  Follen- women's work to help fight slavery; inspiration; very persuasive o Women have power to persuade people of the end of slavery o Women's work is inside the home- but these female writers protest this o True Cult of Womanhood  Piety, submission, domesticity, purity  Stowe Hawthorne  The Birthmark  Discussed how you view beauty and perfection as a subjective concept  Obsession  Know the three main human characters and what each one represents  What the birthmark represents Jacobs  Cult of Womanhood  How being a slave brings about issues with trying to be a good mother and wife  She is aware of the values of the Cult, but she cannot adhere to these values because of slavery  Contrast how Jacobs can try and embody these values verses someone like Georgiana  Dr. Flint is the slave owner  Mr. Sands- who Jacobs chooses to have her children with Douglass  Mental slavery vs. physical slavery  Refutes how it is innate that black people have to be slaves  Slaveholders use religion against salves and do not allow the education of slaves  Makes it so we never know how intelligent slaves can be  All of this forced Douglass on the path he took  Language and literacy are important  Hypocrisy of Christianity  Authenticating devices- know what they are and how they work in Douglass's favor o Devices vouch for the character and truth of the author o In this narrative, the devices must come from a white person- need to show how Douglass is intelligent and is capable of writing this piece o Garrison o Pierce o ^ both are white males- in this case, they had to be white males  Be able to compare Douglass and Jacobs o Know that Jacobs embodies what a slave women endures- and how it’s different than that of a male slave Alcott  Why her relationship with Robert is controversial  Saw him first as a man but then saw the slash marks on his face- then he turned into a slave  Master Ned kills Robert's wife  Talks about love and sentimentalism  Love conquers all  Only a woman can change a man's mind about love  Ends with "my contraband"- he will never be fully man but she does humanize him to a great extent  Discusses how northerners do not want blacks to have rights and be equal to them, they just are against enslaving them  Know how she evokes emotion  Know how she uses gothic as well Melville  American capitalism can dehumanize people  Bartleby gives up after loses his job  Story slowly reveals the issues of Wall Street  Wall Street values money/materialism over human needs/people/religious values  Narrator is head of the church but they idea never really develops  People are moving away from religion to make money o This idea becomes more important as America grows  Bartleby's catchphrase, "I prefer not to" o Significance- there is not option to resist, yet he is, but does so in a passive way o Passive resistance- in a materialistic society- working like a machine is at the forefront and human needs and religious values fall to the backburner o Because Bartley is part of the machine, he is dying slowly- he is not eating- he is not being sustained  "Ah, humanity" concludes this writing- dies outside the prison Whitman  Look back- should be fresh  First stanza- how is it set up, what is the importance of it  Stanza 6- know the metaphors


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