Week 14 notes
Week 14 notes ANSC 3232
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dragon Note on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 3232 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dr. Meyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Feeds and Feeding in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
13: Mineral and Vitamin Nutrition AN SCI 3232 Dr. Meyer Macro vs. Micro Minerals Macro Micro (Trace) • Na • Fe • Cl • Cu • Ca • Zn • P • Se • S • I • K • Co • Mg • Mn • Mo Mineral Interactions antagonisms Change availability or Use by body +/- interactions What affects feedstuff mineral content? • Soil and water – How much mineral is in soil and water – Regional differences – also soil type – Soil fertility differences • Type of feedstuff/plant – Concentrates vs forages – Grains vs oilseeds – Legumes vs grasses • Part of parent compound – Leaves vs stems – Hulls vs rest – Diff concentration in same plant – Co product Water vs. Fat-soluble Vitamins Water-soluble (can’t be stored)uble (stored) • B complex • A • C • D • E • K Minerals and vitamins • Content of forages and feedstuffs dependent on species, part of plant, soil mineral content • Concerns for all: all livestock – Ca:P – NaCl – Cu, Zn, Se – immune function – Vitamin A – eyes, skin, reproduction Mineral and vitamin supplementation 2 ways to feed: feedstuffs and mineral/vitamin sources • Various forms available (loose, block(grazing), pellet) – mineral/vitamin specific – Chemical and physical form affect availability • Organic trace minerals – C-containing mineral compound (chelate, proteinates, complexes) mineral complexes with AA, protein, CHO – MBUT research results are MIXED and they cost moreized by the animal, – WEIGH COSTS WITH BENEFITS! ($ with Bioavailability) • As a general rule, choose a mineral supplementation program that results in good animal performance and works economically for your operation! Reading a mineral/vitamin tag Premix or supplement (mineral/vitamin – feedstuffs) • Macro: % – Salt: minimum and maximum – Ca: usually minimum and maximum – Rest: minimum Reading a mineral/vitamin tag • Micro: ppm (parts per million = mg/kg) – Minimum density • Vitamins: IU (international units) – Minimum Not all inorganic sources have the same bioavailability Oxides have low bioavailability Salt (NaCl) • Generally needs to be supplemented, unless a natural salt lick is available • Can also be used to limit intake of mineral or other supplement – Increased salt -> decreased intake • Too much or too little will decrease feed intake Other macrominerals • Calcium – Forages > Concentrates • Phosphorus – Concentrates > Forages – <50% is available(available P not total P) for non- ruminants (swine and poultry) because phytate-P – Ca:P imbalance = urinary calculi (usually high P) Other macrominerals • Magnesium – Forages are variable: low in lush spring regrowth and hays (coming from spring growth) • Generally feed high Mg mineral during spring especially to prevent grass tetany ( grazing) • Grass tetany: low Mg (and usually high K) causes twitching, nervousness, convulsions, erratic behavior, frequent urination, and death (grass staggers) – Deficiency is exacerbated by high K Other macrominerals • Sulfur – Higher in legumes cereal grains, and co-products – Can be very high in some water sources > polio • Interacts with Se, Cu, Mo, and thiamin(vitamin) High sulfur can cause deficiency of trace minerals listed above Trace minerals • Iron – Generally adequate to high in most feedstuffs • Availability? – bioavailability – Low in milk and milk products • Always supplemented to neonatal pigs(Fe injection) in confinement • Generally needs to be supplemented to neonatal ruminants with milk-only diets in confinement (veal calf, calf hutches indoors) – May need to be supplemented if parasites or disease – Soil is a good Fe source Trace minerals • Copper – Status depends on other mineral concentrations (antagonists)- S, Mo (soil variable) – Low in milk and milk products • Generally supplemented to neonatal pigs in pharmacological dose – SHEEP are highly susceptible to toxicity • Don’t feed sheep cattle minerals • Have a requirement but it is lower than other ruminants • No copper = bad wool Copper deficient areas Based on soil and water Trace minerals • Zinc – Supplementation may be beneficial in stressed animals – immune – Pharmacological zinc and copper = antimicrobial (drug) activity • Neonatal pigs • Cobalt – Concentrates are often low in Co – Ruminal microbes use Co to make vitamin B12 Cobalt deficient areas Trace minerals • Selenium – Feedstuffs vary greatly by soil Se content! – organic forms (Se-AA – taking S place in Met or Cys) are usually more bioavailable – injection (“BO-SE”: Se and vitamin E), rumen release bolus – Regulated by FDA – Se – Met -> store in protein Selenium in feedstuffs Trace minerals • Iodine – Iodized salt – Goitrogens (anti nutritional factor) increase I requirements • White clover (cyanide), Brassica forages (e.g. turnips, rapeseed, kale; glucosinolates) • Soybean meal and cottonseed meal may have goitrogen compounds Iodine deficient areas Vitamins - Ruminants • Rumen microbes synthesize B vitamins and vitamin K – B-complex or B12 injection may help if the rumen isn’t functioning/ off feed or decrease intake – Beef cattle often fed vitamin A, D, and E mixes Vitamins • Vitamin A – most important, sight, reproduction – Ruminants and non-ruminants generally need to be supplemented with vitamin A precursors (carotenes, carotenoids) – Forages generally contain vitamin A precursors • Store poorly, decrease over time – Yellow corn is the only common grain that contains many vitamin A precursors • Can be destroyed by light, air, and heat processing • Any fat soluble vitamins can be oxidized Vitamins • Vitamin D – Synthesized by most animals that are exposed to sunlight, so supplementation is usually only necessary for • Vitamin E – Occurs in feeds as α-tocopherol, but is variable and unstable – oxidized • In most common feedstuffs • Destroyed/damaged by heat, air, moisture, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, nitrates Vitamins • Vitamin C – Livestock can synthesize vitamin C, so supplementation isn’t necessary – Humans, other primates, and guinea pigs can’t synthesize vitamin C • Vitamin K – Usually supplemented as “insurance” – Important in blood clotting B vitamins • Niacin (B3): supplemented to swine • Choline: sometimes supplemented to dairy cows • Riboflavin (B2): supplemented to swine • Pantothenic acid (B5): supplemented to swine • Biotin (B7): sometimes supplemented to swine (reproduction) • Folacin: sometimes supplemented to swine (reproduction) • Thiamin (B1): especially feedlot cattle (S antagonism- PEM) – Deficiency: nervous system problems, heart problems Learning Objectives 1. What factors affect mineral content of a feedstuff? 2. What minerals and vitamins are most often of concern when feeding livestock? – What particular minerals and vitamins are supplemented to specific species or physiological stages? 3. Is soil mineral concentration concerning in MO? 4. Understand how to read a mineral/vitamin premix feed tag – What units are used?
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