New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Lecture 23 - Health and Stress Pt. 1 and 2 (Final Class)

by: Leslie Ogu

Lecture 23 - Health and Stress Pt. 1 and 2 (Final Class) PSYC 2012

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2012 > Lecture 23 Health and Stress Pt 1 and 2 Final Class
Leslie Ogu
GPA 3.01

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

For our final classes, we discussed stress and how it affects our health. This is a topic catered specifically to college students as it is something we deal with on a daily basis. We discuss metho...
Social Psychology
Stock, M
Class Notes
social, Psychology, stress, Management, coping, health, Negative, effects, help, Support, situations, friends, family, college, students, lack, Of, sleep, Sources, chronic, acute, everyday, hassles, fight-or-flight, control, perceived, type, a, b, personality, alcohol, sexual, behavior, Inhibition, disinhibition, uv, sun, exposure, emotion-focused, problem-focused, emotion, Physical, Psychological, physiological, tangible, informational, buffering, hypothesis, Studies, disclosure, Prevention, intervention, exercise, Diabetes, defects, Pregnancy
25 ?




Popular in Social Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


Reviews for Lecture 23 - Health and Stress Pt. 1 and 2 (Final Class)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/29/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012  04/26/2016 ­ Stress and Health Pt. 1 and 2    Stress  ➢ Def:​  negative feelings and beliefs that arise when people feel unable to cope with  demands from their environment  ➢ Perceived discrepancy between a person’s demands and his/her resources to  cope with those demands  ➢ Examples of Recent Stress  ○ Had lots of tests  ○ Lack of sleep  ○ Had projects, research paper due  ○ Having roommate or friend conflicts  ○ Thoughts about the future  ○ Lack of money  ○ Working while in school  ○ Illness (self or loved one)  ➢ Types of Stressors  ○ Distress v. Eustress  ■ Distress ­​ harmful, threatening  ● E.g., marital conflict  ■ Eustress ­ ​ less harmful, challenging  ● E.g., starting college  ○ Acute v. Chronic  ■ Acute ­ ​relatively sudden; short­lived  ● E.g., tests, traffic  ■ Chronic ­​  ongoing; persistent  ● E.g., job loss, serious illness  ○ Physical Stressors  ■ E.g., heat/cold, infection  ■ Direct physical threat to one’s well­being  ○ Physiological Stressors  ■ E.g., failure to reach an important goal  ■ Challenges to one’s well­being  ○ Both physical and physiological have similar effects on the body  ➢ Sources of stress  ○ Imminent events requiring strong demands  ○ Life transitions  ○ Everyday hassles  ○ Ambiguous events  ○ Uncontrollable events  ○ Unpredictable events  ➢ Measurement of Stress  ○ Physiological Measures  ■ Blood pressure  ■ Respiration rate  ■ Hormone levels  ○ Self­report of stressful life events  ■ Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967)  ■ College Life Stress Inventory  ➢ Biological Component of Stress  ○ Stress has an adaptive purpose  ■ Fight­or­Flight Response ­​  responding to a stressor by either  attacking it or fleeing from it  ● Physiological arousal  ○ E.g., heart rate increases, pupils dilate, alert  ● Release of stress hormones (e.g., cortisol)  ● Adaptive ­ ​ allows people to respond quickly to threat  ● Maladaptive ­ ​ disrupts emotional and physiological  functioning; can lead to health problems  ➢ General Adaptation Syndrome ***  ➢ Stage 1: Alarm reaction  ○ Brief drop in arousal (shock)  ○ Dramatic increase in arousal (fight­or­flight response)  ➢ Stage 2: Resistance  ○ Body tries to adapt to stressor  ○ Arousal declines slightly but remains higher than normal  ➢ Stage 3: Exhaustion  ○ Body is depleted of energy; disease and damage possible  ➢ Stress­related Disorders ***  ○ Skin disorders (e.g., acne, hives)  ○ Tension disorders (e.g., headaches, neck/back pain)  ○ Gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome)  ○ Cardiovascular disorders (e.g., angina, hypertension, CHD)  ○ Immune system disorders (e.g., flu, mono, asthma, allergies)  ○ Depression, anxiety  ➢ Diathesis­stress Model  ○ A person had a predisposition to an illness, but it may remain dormant  unless triggered by stress  ○ Diathesis ­ ​redisposition to an illness  ■ E.g., genetics, environment, nutrition, etc  ○ Tendency to respond in a specific way can make body more vulnerable  ■ E.g., Type A  ➢ Stress, Viruses, and the Immune System  ○ Study by Cohen et al (1993) showed people who were exposed to a  common cold virus were more likely to develop a cold if they had more  stressful life events, higher perceived stress, and/or higher negative  affectivity  ○ More research by Cohen has shown:  ■ Type, intensity, and duration of stressor are important ***  ■ Effects not due to health behaviors, demographics, etc  ➢ Perceived Control ­​ belief that you can influence your environment in ways that  determine if you experience positive or negative outcomes  ➢ Sense of control decreases stress, anxiety, and depression  ➢ Perceptions of control must be realistic to be adaptive    Type A People **  ➢ Characterized by:  ○ Chronic Time urgency  ■ Impatience, multiple tasks, over scheduling  ○ Hostility, anger, and aggressiveness **  ■ Hostile personality  ○ Competitiveness  ○ Additional: Symptom suppression?  ➢ Examples  ○ When someone criticizes you, do you quickly get annoyed?  ○ When you are held in a slow line in traffic, do you quickly sense your heart  pounding and your breath quickening?  ➢ Type B is the absence of these behaviors ​***  ➢ Who is more likely to be Type A?  ○ Men  ○ People who live in urban areas  ○ Type A parents  ○ Western Cultures  ➢ Type A and Self­evaluation  ○ In comparison to Type B’s, Type A’s:  ■ Evaluate themselves more harshly  ■ Tend to attribute negative events to internal causes  ■ Attend selectively to negative feedback  ■ Make comparisons with inappropriate others    Explanatory Style Illustrations **  ➢ Internal: “I am very smart”  ➢ External: “The test was easy”    ➢ Stable: “I always do well on tests”  ➢ Unstable: “I was prepared this one time.”    ➢ Global: “I am doing well in most of my classes.”  ➢ Specific: “I’m doing well in this particular class, but not doing well in my other  classes.”    Optimistic v. Pessimistic Styles  ➢ Optimistic Explanatory Style (OES)  ○ Good Event: internal/stable/global  ○ Bad Event: external/unstable/specific  ➢ Pessimistic Explanatory Style (PES)  ○ Good Event: external/unstable/specific  ○ Bad Event: internal/stable/global    Behavior and Health  ➢ Chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes) are the  leading causes of mortality in the US  ○ Negative health behaviors (e.g., substance use, never exercising, a poor  diet) and lack of medical seeking (e.g., physical exams, screening for  cancer/illness, checking blood pressure) increase the likelihood of these  outcomes    Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior  ➢ Alcohol is associated with: ***  ○ Greater likelihood of sex with casual partners  ○ Less condom use  ○ Poorer condom negotiation skills  ○ Increased risk for STDs  ○ Lower perception of risks / Negative consequences  ➢ Cognitive Effects of Alcohol  ○ Disinhibition (make one less inhibited)  ■ Alcohol causes people to “let go” of the inhibitions that would  normally constrain their behavior  ○ Implications​  **  ■ People will make riskier decisions  ■ People should not make decisions about health behaviors when  intoxicated  ○ Alcohol Myopia  ■ Intoxication limits cognitive capacity  ■ No longer have necessary processing skills to attend to all  information in an environment  ■ Focus on salient environmental cues  ■ More or less likely to engage in risky behaviors, depending on the  cue  ■ 2 types of cues  ● Impelling ­​  calls attention to benefits of risky behavior (e.g.,  sexual arousal, attractive person)  ● Inhibiting ­​ calls attention to costs of risky behavior (e.g.,  STD, pregnancy)  ○ Conclusions  ■ Be aware of the cognitive effects alcohol can have **  ■ Have a sober friend accompany you out if you anticipate drinking  ■ Be smart!    Skin Cancer and Sun Protection  ➢ Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the U.S.  ➢ Most skin cancers and skin damage (e.g., wrinkles) are linked to ultraviolet (UV)  light exposure  ➢ Therefore ...  ○ Behaviors that protect against UV exposure can help reduce skin cancer  risk  ■ Sunscreen use  ■ Protective clothing  ■ Shade seeking  ■ Avoiding tanning bed  ➢ Appearance­based Interventions  ○ Motivation for tanning: attractiveness **  ■ Social aspect of risk engagement  ○ Are tanners aware of risk? Yes, but ...  ■ Benefits are immediate  ■ Risks are distal  ■ Perceived benefits > risks  ○ Photoaging ­ premature wrinkling, spots / dark patches caused by UV  exposure  ➢ UV Photography Interventions  ○ A UV­filtered Polaroid camera takes:  ■ Black­and­white photo  ■ UV photo  ○ “Dark, freckled, or pitted” areas show UV damage  ○ The photo can be combined with information on the appearance and/or  health consequences of UV exposure  ○ A study by Gibbons (2004) showed that it helped reduce the amount of UV  exposure    Coping with Stress  ➢ Coping ­​  any process by which people try to manage the stress they are  experiencing  ○ Problem­focused ­ ​ behavior aimed to directly manage the stressor  ■ Taking action, seeking support  ○ Emotion­focused ­ ​ behavior aimed at controlling the emotional response  of the stressor  ■ Venting, mentally disengaging, positive reappraisal    Social Support  ➢ Def ­ ​perception that others are responsive and receptive to one’s needs  ➢ Aspects of social networks  ○ Size  ○ Frequency of contact  ○ Quality of relationships  ➢ Types:  ○ Tangible (instrumental) support ­  direct assistance  ■ Ex: Lending money, helping someone move  ○ Informational support ­ ​advice or information  ■ Ex: Doing research  ○ Emotional (and esteem) support ­​  expression of empathy  ■ Ex: Listening, showing concern  ➢ Consistency related to better health **  ➢ A few findings: ***  ○ Socially isolated people died at a rate 3x higher than socially integrated  people  ○ Pregnant women with greater perceived social support had fewer  complications  ○ Unemployed men with greater perceived social support were less likely to  get sick or be depressed  ○ People with cancer had greater survival rates when they participated in  social support groups  ➢ Why does social support help?  ○ Buffering hypothesis ­​  social support is most beneficial when we’re  under stress    Emotional Inhibition  ➢ Def ­​ Denial of negative emotions  ➢ Inhibiting thoughts or feelings requires psychological effort  ➢ Psychological effort = stress  ○ Takes psychological toll = illness  ➢ Disclosure (emotional expression of upsetting experiences) improves mood,  grades, and the ability to function well  ➢ Expression / Disclosure  ○ Why does it work?  ■ Through writing, people organize their thoughts and find meaning in  their experiences  ● Use words like: resolve, realize, work through  ● Positive emotions and cognitive change  ■ Not just act of confiding in another person that matters  ○ When doesn’t it work well?  ■ Substitute for action  ■ Facts without emotional expression  ■ Just complaining    Conclusions  ➢ Important to consider biological, psychological, and social components of stress  ➢ Stress can make us susceptible to health problems  ➢ Social support, effective coping, optimism, emotional expression, and beliefs in  control can reduce the negative effects of stress      Stress Management  ➢ Psychological Effects of Exercise  ○ Enhanced sense of well­being  ○ Decreased anxiety  ○ Reduces depression by elevating low serotonin level ­ similar to effect of  antidepressant drugs  ➢ Physical Benefits of Exercise  ○ Reduces risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease  ○ Improves cholesterol  ○ Strengthens muscles and bones  ○ Increases energy  ○ Promotes better sleep  ○ Reduction of stress can improve immune system  ➢ Examples applying social support to exercise  ○ Membership, equipment, gym  ○ Coaching, instructions, training, etc  ○ Encouragement, companionship, validation 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.