Ch. 16 Organizational Culture
Ch. 16 Organizational Culture MGMT 3720
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alora Lornklang on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 3720 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. James D. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
MGMT 3720 Organizational Behavior Chapter Review Chapter 16: Organizational Culture 1. Describe the common characteristics of organizational culture Organizational culture o A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. Seven primary characteristics seem to capture the essence of an organization’s culture. o Innovation and risk taking The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks o Attention to detail The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail. o Outcome orientation The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve them. o People orientation The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization. o Team orientation The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals o Aggressiveness The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing. o Stability The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth. Dominant culture o A culture that expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members Core values o The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization Subcultures o Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation. Strong culture o A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared 2. Compare the functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture on people and the organization The Functions of Culture o Boundarydefining role o Conveys a sense of identify for members o Facilitates the generation of commitment o Enhances the stability of the social system o Serves as a sensemaking and control mechanism Culture creates climate o Organizational climate is shared perceptions about the organization and work environment Climates can interact with one another to produce behavior Climate also influences the habits people adopt Ethical work climate (EWC) o The shared concept of right and wrong behavior in that workplace, develops as part of the organizational climate Culture and innovation o The most innovative companies have open, unconventional, collaborative, visiondriven, and accelerating cultures Culture as an asset o Culture can significantly contribute to an organization’s bottom line in many ways Culture as a liability o Institutionalization o Barriers to change o Barriers to diversity o Barriers to acquisitions and mergers 3. Identify the factors that create and sustain an organization’s culture. Culture creation occurs in three ways: o Founders hire employees who think and feel the way they do o Employees are indoctrinated and socialized into the founders’ way of thinking o Founders’ own behavior encourages employees to identify with them and internalize their beliefs, values, and assumptions Keeping a culture alive o Selection Identify and hire individuals with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform successfully Twoway street o Top Management Establish norms of behavior Socialization o A process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture Prearrival stage o The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joints the organization Encounter stage o The stage in socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge Metamorphosis stage o The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the job, work group, and organization 4. Show how culture is transmitted to employees. How Employees Learn Culture o Culture is transmitted to employees through: Stories Rituals Repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce with the key values of the organization, which goals are most important, which people are important, and which are expendable Material Symbols What conveys to employees who is important, the degree of egalitarianism top management desires, and the kinds of behavior that are appropriate Language 5. Demonstrate how an unethical culture can be created. The organizational culture most likely to promote high ethical standards is: o High in risk tolerance o Low to moderate in aggressiveness o Focused on means as well as outcomes Managers are: o Supported for taking risks and innovating o Discouraged from unbridled competition o Guided to heed not just to what goal is achieved but also how How can management create a more ethical culture? o Be a visible role model o Communicate ethical expectations o Provide ethics training o Visibly reward ethical arts and punish unethical ones o Provide protective mechanisms 6. Describe a positive organizational culture. Positive organizational culture o A culture that emphasizes building on employee strengths, rewards more than punishes, and emphasizes individual vitality and growth There is a trend today for organizations to attempt to create a positive organizational culture: o Emphasizes building on employee strengths o Rewards more than it punishes o Emphasizes individual vitality growth Positive culture is not a cureall 7. Identify characteristics of a spiritual culture. Workplace spirituality o The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community Characteristics of Spiritual organization o Benevolence Spiritual organizations value showing kindness toward others and promoting the happiness of employees and other organizational stakeholders o Strong sense of purpose Spiritual organizations build their cultures around a meaningful purpose. Although profits may be important, they’re not the primary value of the organization. o Trust and respect Spiritual organizations are characterized by mutual trust, honesty, and openness. Employees are treated with esteem and value, consistent with the dignity of each individual. o Openmindedness Spiritual organizations value flexible thinking and creativity among employees 8. Show how national culture can affect the way organizational culture is transported to another country. Organizational cultures often reflect national culture One of the primary things U.S. managers can do is to be culturally sensitive The management of ethical behavior is one area where national culture can rub up against corporate culture US employees are not the only ones who need to be culturally sensitive