World History 1020, Week Eleven Notes
World History 1020, Week Eleven Notes HIST 1020 - 004
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
April 25-‐30, 2016 (Week Eleven) Dr. David Carter World History 1020 Decolonization Negotiated independence in India and Africa Africa for Africans (pan-‐Africanism) -‐ WWII and the period immediately after saw the ranks of nationalist movements swell -‐ Africans migrated to cities in search of a better life Three groups led the nationalist movement -‐ Former servicemen -‐ Urban unemployed and underemployed -‐ The educated -‐ Decolonization often includes violence -‐ Africa turns from imperialism into independence -‐ Faced with rising nationalist demands, European powers agreed to decolonize -‐ Decolonization was generally rapid and calm -‐ Ghana (British Gold Coast) became the first independent state led by Kwame Nkrumah -‐ By 1963, all of British Africa except Southern Rhodesia (modern day Zimbabwe) was independent -‐ Charismatic nationalist leaders, like Nkrumah, took charge of political powers -‐ Decolonization in French-‐ruled Africa followed similar path after initial French resistance -‐ At first, the French attempted assimilation into metropolitan France -‐ French are torn between whether they should keep their colonies or let them go -‐ The French electorate balked at these policies and under President Charles de Gaulle, France dissolved its political ties in Africa -‐ Among the new leaders in Africa, the sense of creating something different from existing patterns was strong -‐ Nkrumah, Azikiwe in Nigeria and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania looked to Africa’s precolonial traditions to enable the continent to develop an African form of socialism without going though depredations of capitalism -‐ If these leaders were to embrace socialism, how would this happen? -‐ Marx and Engels say that you have to go through capitalism to get to socialism and these African leaders question that, so rather, they looked toward China’s Mao Zedong -‐ African personality was steeped in communal values of social justice and equality as opposed to European individualism -‐ Leopold Sedar Senghor of Senegal best epitomized these views -‐ He and others developed the idea of “Negritude” which claimed that people of African descent were more humane and had stronger communal feelings than Europeans -‐ Promised to assimilate what was good from France but not to be assimilated into France Violent and incomplete decolonizations Palestine, Israel, Egypt -‐ The British, who ruled Palestine in the interwar years, had issued the Balfour Declaration, making Palestine a “homeland” for Jews -‐ Immigration of Jews, however, created conflict between fledging Jewish and Arab nations -‐ Arabs living in Palestine declared themselves Palestinians and worked toward self-‐ determination -‐ To dampen instability, the British curtailed Jewish immigration precipitously during WWII and immediately after -‐ In 1947, the British announced their withdrawal from Palestine and asked the United Nations to decide its fate -‐ The United Nations voted to create two states -‐ Israel declared its existence in May 1948 but was unhappy about its insecure borders, small size and the exclusion of parts of ancient Israel -‐ Palestinians looked to Arab neighbors to help them gain control over the entire area -‐ The ensuing Arab-‐Israeli War was won by Israel -‐ The loss delegitimized Arab ruling elites -‐ It also created 1 million Palestinian refugees in Arab countries -‐ In response to their defeat over the partition of Palestine, Egyptian officers, led by nationalist, Gamal Abdel Nasser, overthrew King Faruq in 1952 -‐ Nasser quickly instituted broad land reform to gain support and takes aid from Soviet Union and the U.S. -‐ He dissolves parliament, banned political parties and enacted a new constitution that banned communists and the Muslim Brotherhood and stripped old elites of most of their wealth -‐ In 1956, seeking to assert Egypt’s influence, Nasser seized control of the Suez Canal Company, controlled mainly by British and French investors -‐ Israeli, French and British forces invaded Egypt and seize the canal back -‐ If you can control canals, you can control borders -‐ The Soviet Union and the U.S. forced their withdrawal -‐ After regaining the canal, Nasser became a hero and symbol of pan-‐Arab nationalism across Southwest Asia including among Palestine The Algerian War of Independence -‐ The French considered Algeria a part of metropolitan France -‐ Numerous European colons lived there -‐ War between colons, Algerian natives and French military -‐ They owned the best land and monopolized political power -‐ In 1954, Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) forces open guerrilla attacks on French troops -‐ The war dragged on for eight years with atrocities committed by both sides -‐ In 1962, President de Gaulle and the FLN negotiate a peace settlement -‐ 90 percent of the European population fled Algeria reconstituting the originals Algerian population mix -‐ French lose in both Vietnam and Algeria Eastern and southern Africa -‐ The Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya, which commenced in 1952, forced the British to concede independence to the black majority there in 1963, despite the protests of 20,000 British settlers -‐ Decolonization had to wait until the 1970s in Portuguese Angola, Mozambique and British Southern Rhodesia -‐ African women played vital roles in the decolonization strategies -‐ Organized demonstrations in Africa -‐ Kenyan women supplied rebel forces in hiding with food m medical resources and information on British military -‐ South Africa defied these changes -‐ In 1948, the Afrikaner-‐dominated Nationalist Party came to power and enacted a series of segregation laws called apartheid -‐ The West, especially the U.S. continued to support the regime against the spread of communism in Africa Vietnam -‐ The French had rued Vietnam since the 1880s -‐ French reforms gave rise to a new indigenous middle-‐class intelligentsia that began to push for an independent Vietnamese nation-‐state in the interwar years -‐ Ho Chi Minh looked to Marxism as a source of inspiration -‐ During WWII, he embraced Mao’s idea of an agrarian revolution -‐ Formed the Viet Minh, a communist led national liberation organization -‐ When the French tried to restore their control after WWII, the Viet Minh opposed them with the use of guerrilla tactics -‐ In 1954, the Viet Minh won the decisive battle of Dien Bien Phu -‐ A Geneva peace conference divided the country into two zones: one in the north controlled by Ho, and the other in the south, controlled by a French and American supported government -‐ North Vietnam supported the efforts of the Viet Cong -‐ communist guerrillas -‐ to overthrow the Western-‐backed regime and unite the country -‐ Half a million American troops in South Vietnam under Lyndon B. Johnson -‐ America had the threat of nuclear warfare -‐ Kennedy’s “Flexible Response” -‐ During the 1960s, the U.S. sent military forces to prop up the southern regime -‐ Faced with antiwar protests at home and severe resistance by Vietnamese, Americans began to withdraw troops after the presidential election of 1968 -‐ A failed U.S. policy of Vietnamization, implemented during America’s troop withdrawal, led to the collapse of the South Vietnamese government in 1975 -‐ The Vietnam Conflict was essentially a two front war – one in Vietnam and one on the home front for public opinion as there was a growth of anti-‐war beliefs -‐ Noncommunist South Vietnam (The Republic of Vietnam) was lead up by President Ngo Dihn Diem who was not very popular and considered elitist and out-‐of-‐touch -‐ The U.S. was majorly militarily involved in Vietnam from 1964-‐1975 -‐ Tet Offensive (Jan. 30 – March 7, 1968) -‐ The nature of the Vietnam War was different than wars before it i.e. “living room war” -‐ Media predominately led to American withdrawal -‐ Hugh Thompson Jr. -‐ Kent State University -‐ Southern Vietnamese surrender in Saigon in 1975 -‐ U.S. and Soviet Union are fighting for the influence over third world countries like Vietnam Three Worlds -‐ The United States entered a prolonged expansion during WWII that continued in the early 70s -‐ Home ownership became common -‐ “American-‐made” was synonymous with high quality -‐ Has more prosperity but did not benefit all people -‐ A quarter of the people still lived in poverty -‐ African-‐Americans were a disproportionate part of those in poverty -‐ Rise of the civil rights movement demanded the end of racial segregation and called for equal rights, including economic equality -‐ The NAACP won many court victories, especially against segregation in education -‐ MLK successfully employed Gandhi’s tactics of nonviolent confrontation to win support against segregation -‐ The Japanese “miracle” -‐ American military and economic support allowed Japan to focus on rebuilding its destroyed infrastructure with up-‐to-‐date equipment -‐ The U.S. opened its market to Japanese products -‐ Japan, West Germany, South Korea, participating in economics and getting involved with the First World -‐ The appeal of the Soviet model -‐ The Soviet turned Eastern Europe into a bloc of communist “buffer states” after WWII -‐ Continued to frown on private property and to emphasize state management of a cradle-‐to-‐grave comprehensive welfare system -‐ Appealed to many because of its egalitarian principles. Despite its inability to provide the consumer goods common in the First World -‐ Soviet science gained worldwide acclaim, especially after the launching of Sputnik in 1957 -‐ Repression and dissent -‐ The Soviet system was inhumane, brutally suppressing dissent and those it deemed dangerous to the state -‐ When Stalin dies, the new party leader, Khrushchev, denounced Stalin’s human rights abuses are not a part of true communism -‐ Leaders in Poland and Hungary immediately liberalized political and economic controls -‐ Soviet leadership brought in the tanks and crushed this dissent although it did allow some economic and cultural autonomy -‐ In the 1950s, the communist party tried to soften these abuses -‐ In the Soviet Union, dissidents of all stripes emerged -‐ Leaders of newly independent countries were convinced that they could build strong democratic polities like those in the West and promote rapid economic development as the Soviet Union had while avoiding the empty materialism they associated with the West and the state oppression in communist regimes -‐ Limits to autonomy: -‐ This third way proved difficult -‐ The West sought that market structures and private property remained intact -‐ The World Bank loaned millions for development but enforced a First World approach to modernization on Third World nations -‐ First World multinational corporations also infringed on the sovereignty of many Third World nations -‐ Both The U.S. and the USSR frowned on neutralism and often impeded Third World autonomy -‐ The USSR backed communist insurgencies -‐ The U.S. used its global alliances to establish military bases around the world -‐ Both superpowers contributed to the militarization of the Third World -‐ In Africa and Southwest Asia, both superpowers sold weapons to regimes in return for support and often created “client states” -‐ The obstacles became known as “neocolonial” problems -‐ By the 1960s, many new states were mired in debt and dependency and managed by corrupt regimes supported by one of the superpowers -‐ During the 1960s, Third World radicalism emerged as a powerful force -‐ Revolutionaries drew on the world of Frantz Fanon who urged a decolonization in of the mind as well as society -‐ The Maoist model -‐ Mao’s leadership in China inspired radicals elsewhere -‐ In 1958, he initiated the Great Leap Forward -‐ The bold initiative divided China into thousands of communes where peasants would determine how to produce the food and the industrial products that would propel China past the superpowers -‐ The experiment failed miserably as over 20 million perished from famine -‐ In 1966, Mao launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution -‐ Millions of young people were urged to cleanse china of old communist ways -‐ In Latin America, radicals dreamed of ending U.S.’s domination over the region -‐ In Cuba, Fidel Castro launched a successful guerrilla war against an American-‐ backed regime in the late 1950s -‐ In 1961, America fails with the Bay of Pigs -‐ In 1962, Castro aligned himself with the USSR and appealed to his new ally to install nuclear weapons in Cuba to forestall any future American invasions -‐ Eventually Kennedy convinced the Soviets to remove the weapons -‐ Radicals throughout Latin America were emboldened by Castro’s success and hoped to emulate him Conclusion -‐ Ending the Cold War -‐ The Cold War limited global exchanges -‐ Mounting costs which led to massive budget deficits -‐ The largest peacetime accumulation of arms in world history occurred during the 70s and 80s -‐ Both alliances showed signs of cracking starting in the 1970s -‐ Japanese economic strides threatens the U.S. -‐ In 1980, Solidarity, an independent union, formed to bring down socialist Poland -‐ The Soviet bloc collapses -‐ Instead of using the massive forces at his disposal to save his regime, Gorbachev let it go -‐ By the end of 1992, the Soviet Union had collapsed -‐ Africa and the end of white rule -‐ Angola, Guinea and Mozambique became independent -‐ South Africa and Nelson Mandela -‐ South Africa was the final colonial holdout with a wealthy, deeply entrenched white population -‐ International pressure and internal protest led the white national party in South Africa to legalize the African national congress and hold democratic elections -‐ Africa remained embroiled in ethnic, religious and military conflicts
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