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World History 1020, Week Eleven Notes

by: Liv Taylor

World History 1020, Week Eleven Notes HIST 1020 - 004

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 - 004 > World History 1020 Week Eleven Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover the effects of WWI, WWII, the Vietnam War and the Cold War
World History II
David C. Carter
Class Notes
world, history, WWI, WWII, vietnam, Korean, Conflict, Cold War
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
April  25-­‐30,  2016  (Week  Eleven)   Dr.  David  Carter   World  History  1020     Decolonization     Negotiated  independence  in  India  and  Africa   Africa  for  Africans  (pan-­‐Africanism)   -­‐  WWII  and  the  period  immediately  after  saw  the  ranks  of  nationalist  movements   swell   -­‐  Africans  migrated  to  cities  in  search  of  a  better  life   Three  groups  led  the  nationalist  movement   -­‐ Former  servicemen   -­‐ Urban  unemployed  and  underemployed   -­‐ The  educated   -­‐  Decolonization  often  includes  violence   -­‐  Africa  turns  from  imperialism  into  independence   -­‐  Faced  with  rising  nationalist  demands,  European  powers  agreed  to  decolonize   -­‐  Decolonization  was  generally  rapid  and  calm   -­‐  Ghana  (British  Gold  Coast)  became  the  first  independent  state  led  by  Kwame   Nkrumah   -­‐  By  1963,  all  of  British  Africa  except  Southern  Rhodesia  (modern  day  Zimbabwe)   was  independent   -­‐  Charismatic  nationalist  leaders,  like  Nkrumah,  took  charge  of  political  powers   -­‐  Decolonization  in  French-­‐ruled  Africa  followed  similar  path  after  initial  French   resistance   -­‐  At  first,  the  French  attempted  assimilation  into  metropolitan  France   -­‐  French  are  torn  between  whether  they  should  keep  their  colonies  or  let  them  go   -­‐  The  French  electorate  balked  at  these  policies  and  under  President  Charles  de   Gaulle,  France  dissolved  its  political  ties  in  Africa   -­‐  Among  the  new  leaders  in  Africa,  the  sense  of  creating  something  different  from   existing  patterns  was  strong   -­‐  Nkrumah,  Azikiwe  in  Nigeria  and  Julius  Nyerere  of  Tanzania  looked  to  Africa’s   precolonial  traditions  to  enable  the  continent  to  develop  an  African  form  of   socialism  without  going  though  depredations  of  capitalism   -­‐  If  these  leaders  were  to  embrace  socialism,  how  would  this  happen?   -­‐  Marx  and  Engels  say  that  you  have  to  go  through  capitalism  to  get  to  socialism  and   these  African  leaders  question  that,  so  rather,  they  looked  toward  China’s  Mao   Zedong   -­‐  African  personality  was  steeped  in  communal  values  of  social  justice  and  equality   as  opposed  to  European  individualism   -­‐  Leopold  Sedar  Senghor  of  Senegal  best  epitomized  these  views   -­‐  He  and  others  developed  the  idea  of  “Negritude”  which  claimed  that  people  of   African  descent  were  more  humane  and  had  stronger  communal  feelings  than   Europeans   -­‐  Promised  to  assimilate  what  was  good  from  France  but  not  to  be  assimilated  into   France     Violent  and  incomplete  decolonizations   Palestine,  Israel,  Egypt   -­‐  The  British,  who  ruled  Palestine  in  the  interwar  years,  had  issued  the  Balfour   Declaration,  making  Palestine  a  “homeland”  for  Jews   -­‐  Immigration  of  Jews,  however,  created  conflict  between  fledging  Jewish  and  Arab   nations   -­‐  Arabs  living  in  Palestine  declared  themselves  Palestinians  and  worked  toward  self-­‐ determination   -­‐  To  dampen  instability,  the  British  curtailed  Jewish  immigration  precipitously   during  WWII  and  immediately  after   -­‐  In  1947,  the  British  announced  their  withdrawal  from  Palestine  and  asked  the   United  Nations  to  decide  its  fate   -­‐  The  United  Nations  voted  to  create  two  states   -­‐  Israel  declared  its  existence  in  May  1948  but  was  unhappy  about  its  insecure   borders,  small  size  and  the  exclusion  of  parts  of  ancient  Israel   -­‐  Palestinians  looked  to  Arab  neighbors  to  help  them  gain  control  over  the  entire   area   -­‐  The  ensuing  Arab-­‐Israeli  War  was  won  by  Israel   -­‐  The  loss  delegitimized  Arab  ruling  elites   -­‐  It  also  created  1  million  Palestinian  refugees  in  Arab  countries   -­‐  In  response  to  their  defeat  over  the  partition  of  Palestine,  Egyptian  officers,  led  by   nationalist,  Gamal  Abdel  Nasser,  overthrew  King  Faruq  in  1952   -­‐  Nasser  quickly  instituted  broad  land  reform  to  gain  support  and  takes  aid  from   Soviet  Union  and  the  U.S.   -­‐  He  dissolves  parliament,  banned  political  parties  and  enacted  a  new  constitution   that  banned  communists  and  the  Muslim  Brotherhood  and  stripped  old  elites  of   most  of  their  wealth   -­‐  In  1956,  seeking  to  assert  Egypt’s  influence,  Nasser  seized  control  of  the  Suez  Canal   Company,  controlled  mainly  by  British  and  French  investors   -­‐  Israeli,  French  and  British  forces  invaded  Egypt  and  seize  the  canal  back   -­‐  If  you  can  control  canals,  you  can  control  borders   -­‐  The  Soviet  Union  and  the  U.S.  forced  their  withdrawal   -­‐  After  regaining  the  canal,  Nasser  became  a  hero  and  symbol  of  pan-­‐Arab   nationalism  across  Southwest  Asia  including  among  Palestine     The  Algerian  War  of  Independence   -­‐  The  French  considered  Algeria  a  part  of  metropolitan  France   -­‐  Numerous  European  colons  lived  there   -­‐  War  between  colons,  Algerian  natives  and  French  military   -­‐  They  owned  the  best  land  and  monopolized  political  power   -­‐  In  1954,  Front  de  Liberation  Nationale  (FLN)  forces  open  guerrilla  attacks  on   French  troops   -­‐  The  war  dragged  on  for  eight  years  with  atrocities  committed  by  both  sides   -­‐  In  1962,  President  de  Gaulle  and  the  FLN  negotiate  a  peace  settlement   -­‐  90  percent  of  the  European  population  fled  Algeria  reconstituting  the  originals   Algerian  population  mix   -­‐  French  lose  in  both  Vietnam  and  Algeria     Eastern  and  southern  Africa   -­‐  The  Mau  Mau  Uprising  in  Kenya,  which  commenced  in  1952,  forced  the  British  to   concede  independence  to  the  black  majority  there  in  1963,  despite  the  protests  of   20,000  British  settlers   -­‐  Decolonization  had  to  wait  until  the  1970s  in  Portuguese  Angola,  Mozambique  and   British  Southern  Rhodesia   -­‐  African  women  played  vital  roles  in  the  decolonization  strategies   -­‐  Organized  demonstrations  in  Africa   -­‐  Kenyan  women  supplied  rebel  forces  in  hiding  with  food  m  medical  resources  and   information  on  British  military     -­‐  South  Africa  defied  these  changes   -­‐  In  1948,  the  Afrikaner-­‐dominated  Nationalist  Party  came  to  power  and  enacted  a   series  of  segregation  laws  called  apartheid     -­‐  The  West,  especially  the  U.S.  continued  to  support  the  regime  against  the  spread  of   communism  in  Africa     Vietnam     -­‐  The  French  had  rued  Vietnam  since  the  1880s   -­‐  French  reforms  gave  rise  to  a  new  indigenous  middle-­‐class  intelligentsia  that   began  to  push  for  an  independent  Vietnamese  nation-­‐state  in  the  interwar  years   -­‐  Ho  Chi  Minh  looked  to  Marxism  as  a  source  of  inspiration   -­‐  During  WWII,  he  embraced  Mao’s  idea  of  an  agrarian  revolution   -­‐  Formed  the  Viet  Minh,  a  communist  led  national  liberation  organization   -­‐  When  the  French  tried  to  restore  their  control  after  WWII,  the  Viet  Minh  opposed   them  with  the  use  of  guerrilla  tactics   -­‐  In  1954,  the  Viet  Minh  won  the  decisive  battle  of  Dien  Bien  Phu   -­‐  A  Geneva  peace  conference  divided  the  country  into  two  zones:  one  in  the  north   controlled  by  Ho,  and  the  other  in  the  south,  controlled  by  a  French  and  American   supported  government     -­‐  North  Vietnam  supported  the  efforts  of  the  Viet  Cong  -­‐  communist  guerrillas  -­‐  to   overthrow  the  Western-­‐backed  regime  and  unite  the  country   -­‐  Half  a  million  American  troops  in  South  Vietnam  under  Lyndon  B.  Johnson   -­‐  America  had  the  threat  of  nuclear  warfare   -­‐  Kennedy’s  “Flexible  Response”   -­‐  During  the  1960s,  the  U.S.  sent  military  forces  to  prop  up  the  southern  regime   -­‐  Faced  with  antiwar  protests  at  home  and  severe  resistance  by  Vietnamese,   Americans  began  to  withdraw  troops  after  the  presidential  election  of  1968   -­‐  A  failed  U.S.  policy  of  Vietnamization,  implemented  during  America’s  troop   withdrawal,  led  to  the  collapse  of  the  South  Vietnamese  government  in  1975   -­‐  The  Vietnam  Conflict  was  essentially  a  two  front  war  –  one  in  Vietnam  and  one  on   the  home  front  for  public  opinion  as  there  was  a  growth  of  anti-­‐war  beliefs   -­‐  Noncommunist  South  Vietnam  (The  Republic  of  Vietnam)  was  lead  up  by  President   Ngo  Dihn  Diem  who  was  not  very  popular  and  considered  elitist  and  out-­‐of-­‐touch   -­‐  The  U.S.  was  majorly  militarily  involved  in  Vietnam  from  1964-­‐1975   -­‐  Tet  Offensive  (Jan.  30  –  March  7,  1968)   -­‐  The  nature  of  the  Vietnam  War  was  different  than  wars  before  it  i.e.  “living  room   war”   -­‐  Media  predominately  led  to  American  withdrawal   -­‐  Hugh  Thompson  Jr.     -­‐  Kent  State  University   -­‐  Southern  Vietnamese  surrender  in  Saigon  in  1975   -­‐  U.S.  and  Soviet  Union  are  fighting  for  the  influence  over  third  world  countries  like   Vietnam       Three  Worlds   -­‐  The  United  States  entered  a  prolonged  expansion  during  WWII  that  continued  in   the  early  70s   -­‐  Home  ownership  became  common   -­‐  “American-­‐made”  was  synonymous  with  high  quality   -­‐  Has  more  prosperity  but  did  not  benefit  all  people   -­‐  A  quarter  of  the  people  still  lived  in  poverty   -­‐  African-­‐Americans  were  a  disproportionate  part  of  those  in  poverty   -­‐  Rise  of  the  civil  rights  movement  demanded  the  end  of  racial  segregation  and   called  for  equal  rights,  including  economic  equality   -­‐  The  NAACP  won  many  court  victories,  especially  against  segregation  in  education   -­‐  MLK  successfully  employed  Gandhi’s  tactics  of  nonviolent  confrontation  to  win   support  against  segregation   -­‐  The  Japanese  “miracle”   -­‐  American  military  and  economic  support  allowed  Japan  to  focus  on  rebuilding  its   destroyed  infrastructure  with  up-­‐to-­‐date  equipment   -­‐  The  U.S.  opened  its  market  to  Japanese  products     -­‐  Japan,  West  Germany,  South  Korea,  participating  in  economics  and  getting   involved  with  the  First  World   -­‐  The  appeal  of  the  Soviet  model   -­‐  The  Soviet  turned  Eastern  Europe  into  a  bloc  of  communist  “buffer  states”  after   WWII   -­‐  Continued  to  frown  on  private  property  and  to  emphasize  state  management  of  a   cradle-­‐to-­‐grave  comprehensive  welfare  system   -­‐  Appealed  to  many  because  of  its  egalitarian  principles.  Despite  its  inability  to   provide  the  consumer  goods  common  in  the  First  World   -­‐  Soviet  science  gained  worldwide  acclaim,  especially  after  the  launching  of  Sputnik   in  1957   -­‐  Repression  and  dissent   -­‐  The  Soviet  system  was  inhumane,  brutally  suppressing  dissent  and  those  it   deemed  dangerous  to  the  state   -­‐  When  Stalin  dies,  the  new  party  leader,  Khrushchev,  denounced  Stalin’s  human   rights  abuses  are  not  a  part  of  true  communism   -­‐  Leaders  in  Poland  and  Hungary  immediately  liberalized  political  and  economic   controls   -­‐  Soviet  leadership  brought  in  the  tanks  and  crushed  this  dissent  although  it  did   allow  some  economic  and  cultural  autonomy   -­‐  In  the  1950s,  the  communist  party  tried  to  soften  these  abuses   -­‐  In  the  Soviet  Union,  dissidents  of  all  stripes  emerged   -­‐  Leaders  of  newly  independent  countries  were  convinced  that  they  could  build   strong  democratic  polities  like  those  in  the  West  and  promote  rapid  economic   development  as  the  Soviet  Union  had  while  avoiding  the  empty  materialism  they   associated  with  the  West  and  the  state  oppression  in  communist  regimes   -­‐  Limits  to  autonomy:   -­‐  This  third  way  proved  difficult   -­‐  The  West  sought  that  market  structures  and  private  property  remained  intact   -­‐  The  World  Bank  loaned  millions  for  development  but  enforced  a  First  World   approach  to  modernization  on  Third  World  nations   -­‐  First  World  multinational  corporations  also  infringed  on  the  sovereignty  of  many   Third  World  nations     -­‐  Both  The  U.S.  and  the  USSR  frowned  on  neutralism  and  often  impeded  Third  World   autonomy   -­‐  The  USSR  backed  communist  insurgencies   -­‐  The  U.S.  used  its  global  alliances  to  establish  military  bases  around  the  world   -­‐  Both  superpowers  contributed  to  the  militarization  of  the  Third  World   -­‐  In  Africa  and  Southwest  Asia,  both  superpowers  sold  weapons  to  regimes  in  return   for  support  and  often  created  “client  states”   -­‐  The  obstacles  became  known  as  “neocolonial”  problems   -­‐  By  the  1960s,  many  new  states  were  mired  in  debt  and  dependency  and  managed   by  corrupt  regimes  supported  by  one  of  the  superpowers   -­‐  During  the  1960s,  Third  World  radicalism  emerged  as  a  powerful  force     -­‐  Revolutionaries  drew  on  the  world  of  Frantz  Fanon  who  urged  a  decolonization  in   of  the  mind  as  well  as  society   -­‐  The  Maoist  model   -­‐  Mao’s  leadership  in  China  inspired  radicals  elsewhere   -­‐  In  1958,  he  initiated  the  Great  Leap  Forward   -­‐  The  bold  initiative  divided  China  into  thousands  of  communes  where  peasants   would  determine  how  to  produce  the  food  and  the  industrial  products  that  would   propel  China  past  the  superpowers   -­‐  The  experiment  failed  miserably  as  over  20  million  perished  from  famine   -­‐  In  1966,  Mao  launched  the  Great  Proletarian  Cultural  Revolution   -­‐  Millions  of  young  people  were  urged  to  cleanse  china  of  old  communist  ways   -­‐  In  Latin  America,  radicals  dreamed  of  ending  U.S.’s  domination  over  the  region   -­‐  In  Cuba,  Fidel  Castro  launched  a  successful  guerrilla  war  against  an  American-­‐ backed  regime  in  the  late  1950s   -­‐  In  1961,  America  fails  with  the  Bay  of  Pigs   -­‐  In  1962,  Castro  aligned  himself  with  the  USSR  and  appealed  to  his  new  ally  to   install  nuclear  weapons  in  Cuba  to  forestall  any  future  American  invasions   -­‐  Eventually  Kennedy  convinced  the  Soviets  to  remove  the  weapons   -­‐  Radicals  throughout  Latin  America  were  emboldened  by  Castro’s  success  and   hoped  to  emulate  him     Conclusion   -­‐  Ending  the  Cold  War   -­‐  The  Cold  War  limited  global  exchanges   -­‐  Mounting  costs  which  led  to  massive  budget  deficits   -­‐  The  largest  peacetime  accumulation  of  arms  in  world  history  occurred  during  the   70s  and  80s   -­‐  Both  alliances  showed  signs  of  cracking  starting  in  the  1970s   -­‐  Japanese  economic  strides  threatens  the  U.S.   -­‐  In  1980,  Solidarity,  an  independent  union,  formed  to  bring  down  socialist  Poland   -­‐  The  Soviet  bloc  collapses   -­‐  Instead  of  using  the  massive  forces  at  his  disposal  to  save  his  regime,  Gorbachev  let   it  go   -­‐  By  the  end  of  1992,  the  Soviet  Union  had  collapsed   -­‐  Africa  and  the  end  of  white  rule   -­‐  Angola,  Guinea  and  Mozambique  became  independent   -­‐  South  Africa  and  Nelson  Mandela     -­‐  South  Africa  was  the  final  colonial  holdout  with  a  wealthy,  deeply  entrenched   white  population   -­‐  International  pressure  and  internal  protest  led  the  white  national  party  in  South   Africa  to  legalize  the  African  national  congress  and  hold  democratic  elections   -­‐  Africa  remained  embroiled  in  ethnic,  religious  and  military  conflicts  


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