Psychology week 15 notes
Psychology week 15 notes Psyc 2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Evaluating Therapies -‐ Does it work? Therapy can be hard to assess due to its various components: client & clinical perceptions, clients could drop out if it is ineffective, regression to the mean (peoples’ emotions fluctuate naturally and only see a doctor when they’re getting out of hand so naturally over time they will get better and stop going ex: cyclical depression), patient motivation is important (so is motivational interviewing), -‐ Empirical support: Controlled research with randomized clinical studies or RCT (take ½ the people and treat them with basic care and give the other ½ better treatment and compare drop out rates), meta-‐analysis computed the average affect size and shows that psychotherapy works better than talk therapy/no therapy. -‐ Is 1 therapy better than the rest? (No): CBT and similar therapies work well, but there’s no guarantee. Therapists tend to take the eclectic approach and use the most effective st treatment 1 , and if it isn’t making the patients life better they’ll try other treatments. -‐ Be careful: some therapies work and others are benign (doesn’t help nor hurt) and others a harmful. Harmful & benign therapy is iatrogenic Ex) lilienfeld ’07 and repressed memory theory, scared straight program, and the DARE program. Repressed Memory Theory (RMT) -‐ The idea to “get the memory out”, turns out to be very harmful -‐ When used suicide attempts increase by 500%, hospitalization increases 300%, and self-‐ mutilation increases by 800%. -‐ Not a single patient was better off after 3 years of intensive therapy. *if you ever see a therapist you should ask what type of therapy you’re receiving and why it is validated* Summary -‐ Several types of therapy are helpful, some have empirical support, there’s no “right” therapy it is trial & error, therapies are more effective when combined like drugs & psychotherapy. -‐ Drugs are used short term in most cases except schizophrenia because it is too severe -‐ Cognitive behavioral therapy is the super therapy -‐ Success of treatment depends on many factors such as patient motivation and good treatments. How do I become a therapist? Depends on your interest. -‐ Treat mental health issues with biomedical treatments o MD psychiatry or Psychiatric nurse practitioner -‐ Treat with psychotherapy o PhD/Psy. D in clinical psychology. (Psy. D is treatment oriented instead of research oriented) (deals with mild disorders) o MSW/PhD in counseling psych (deals with slight stress) -‐ Couples counseling/ Parent training o Marriage & family therapist o Applied behavior analysis (ABA) Social Psychology -‐ The scientific study of how individuals think/feel about or interact individually or in groups. “power of the situation”, Internal factors: social cognition/attitudes/emotions, Individual & interactions, social psychologists study individual prejudice whereas sociologists study systematic problems. The scientific study of everyday life -‐ Emotions and how they effect decisions -‐ group behavior: confronting and obedience -‐ Relationships: what makes you desire them -‐ What makes certain people harm or help others -‐ What is normal behavior Social Thinking -‐ Attribution: a hypothesis about the cause of our own or other’s behavior. -‐ 2 major types-‐ dispositional/internal attribution: behavior is due to internal reasons; it is because of the individual/ unique behavior. –situational/external attribution: behavior is due to external factors, a product of the situation. -‐ Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE): attributing behavior to personality instead of situational influences because it is simpler to think this way. Used when observing OTHERS. -‐ Self-‐serving Bias (SSB): take credit for success, blame others for failure. Used when considering OUR OWN behavior. Social Influence -‐ Conformity: a change in behavior or beliefs as a result of real or imagined social pressure (acting differently than you would alone). -‐ Normative Social Influence: Behavior shaped by a desire to fulfill others’ expectations – often to gain approval (to be liked), results in compliance. -‐ Informational Social Influence: evidence about reality that we get from others, results in acceptance/internalization. Diffusion of responsibility -‐ When more people are present, less are likely to help someone in need. Ex) if someone’s is drowning and you’re the only one there, if they die it is your fault; however, if they are drowning and 200 people are there, it is only .005% your fault. Attitudes -‐ Come from socialization (parents, friends, etc.) and conditioning (less obvious, simple repetition, and mere exposure effect) -‐ The more were exposed to something, the more we like it – the mere exposure effect. -‐ Attitudes do not predict actions. -‐ Explicit attitude-‐ what you express, Implicit attitude-‐ how you feel inside. -‐ You want to have consistent behavior, if you don’t it makes you uncomfortable and you need to create a reason why this varied behavior is ok in order to adjust your attitude (cognitive dissonance is the uncomfortable feeling when you don’t have consistent behavior). -‐ Behavior’s influence on attitude: foot-‐in-‐the-‐door phenomenon & low-‐ball effect.
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