JSIS 202 Week 5 Notes
JSIS 202 Week 5 Notes JSIS 202
Popular in Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World
Popular in Art
ART H 214
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pollard on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JSIS 202 at University of Washington taught by Professor James Wellman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Cultural Interactions in an Interdependent World in Art at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Culture, Indigeneity, and International Studies Monday, April 25, 2016 11:29 AM Professor: Jose Antonio Lucero Cultural Analysis: The Traces of the World • The self is always a social project • Antonio Gramsci Culture as Webs of Meaning • Anthropologist: Clifford Geertz • Webs of meaning that we ourselves have spun Imperial Eyes: (Not) Seeing the Native • What people see, is what we expect to see • "Claude Levi-Strauss muses that explorers, anthropologists, and tourist voyage to foreign places in search of the novel, the undiscovered. Wh at they find… is what they already knew they would find, images predigested by certain 'latitudes and common places.' It is thus impossible to see the 'native' with fresh eyes." Colonialism • Manifest Destiny • We are on Duwamish and Coast Salish land. • Patrick Wolfe: Settler colonialism depends on the logic of elimination of the Native o "Invasion is a structure, not an event.: • Time and the Other: "They" live in another time (Johannas Fabian) • Naturalization of Western expansion • Modernity • We have been tr icked into thinking that this is a discrete event. • It's not an event, it's an ongoing structure. Mike Wilson • US/ Mexico/Tohono O'odham Nation o In Mexico and the United States • The Case of Mike Wilson as 1990s -2000s, Human Rights Activist • 1980s- US Special Forces in Central America • How does one explain this transformation? • What does religion tell us about the road toward activism? The Maze of Belonging: Tohono O'odham Borderlands • Labyrinth is metaphor for life, history and a map to or fr om creator god I'itoi's home, located somewhere beneath the sacred Baboquivari Mountain. Argument: Frictions of Conversion and Contention • A curios case of conversion and activism • Conversations often have an "authorizing" and "socializing" function. • Wilson's actions rub uncomfortably against Tohono O'odham nation, the Presbyterian Church, social justice community. • The church didn't want him to do this work o So Mike is critical of the church o He is also critical of the social justice community • It's a fairly lonely kind of activism • Theoretical Framework: Borderlands Friction o Friction (Tsing) • Friction enables movement and it constrains o Contentious Life (Auyero) o Ambivalence (ex. Anzaldua, Brunyeel) o Prophetic Imagination (Brueggemann) • Borders show how unfin ished nation states are Religion and Activism: Three Ways of Seeing • A way of seeing and feeling o Cognitive liberation o moral shock o affective map • Emotions can help us navigate the world • As resource: material and culture • As obstacle o Prophetic politics vs. obstacles of organized religion A Moral Shock in El Salvador • A funny thing happened on the way to "win hearts and minds" Presybterian Church as Resource • San Francisco Theological Seminary • The "Social Justice Community" (Humane Borders, No More Deaths ) • Enters a prophetic mode of activism Conflict with Session • A higher law • Silence of Social Justice Community Conclusion • Religion enables and constrains activism • Traces of belonging and the "voice" of exit. • Self-making and politics of the visual: prophetic and cinematic politics. Fighting the Doctrine of Discovery Wednesday, April 27, 2016 11:26 AM Doctrine of Discovery: Chief Justice John Marshall • 1823, Chief Justice, Federalist Party -strong state • Gave title to lands of colonial power s • Ignoring aboriginal land claims • 15th to the 20th century, giving title to European nations to seize lands • The principle was that discovery gave title to the government by whose subjects or by whose authority, it was made, against all other European gov ernments, which title might be consummated by possession. • 1455 papal bull Romanus Pontifex approved Portugal's claims to lands discovered along the coast of West Africa; (trading with infidel, using slaves) • The 1493 Inter Caetera had ratified Spain's right to conquer newly found lands, after Christopher Columbus had done so… • Imperial eyes allow us not to see the Natives Fall of Constantinople, 1453, Mehmed II, Ottoman Army • Were the Jews ever other worldly? Doctrine of Discovery • 1792 • Thomas Jefferson, US Secretary of State, declared that the Doctrine of Discovery would extend from Europe to the infant US Government, initiating American imperialism over the Amerindian peoples Imperial Eyes that don't see the native • Pope Francis o During his visit to Ecuador in July, he apologized for the "grave sins" committed against the native peoples of America in the name of God." o And he voiced his support for indigenous rights during his speech to Congress Thursday stating, "Tragically, the r ights of those who were here long before us were not always respected…" • Pope Nicholas V, 1455 o One particular papal bull, issued by Pope Nicholas V in 1455, authorized Christian nations "to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and subdue all…enemies of Christ," take their land and "reduce their persons to perpetual slavery." Pope Addresses the problem, but only call for religious freedom • Christian denominations and organizations have already done so. Differences Deloria • Indian Religious World o God as Great Mystery o Prayers that don't flatter o Natural world is home o Return to the earth o Religion is a dance o Welcome death, no fear o Sacred is the land o Life/death continuity o Group over individual o People as particular-tribal • Near Eastern Religions o God as ruler, judge o Prayers to plead/flatter o Natural world, vale of tears o Escape from the planet o Religion is to bind o Fear of death-consequences o Sacred is God above o Life/death discontinuity Two Camps - Catholic Side • Father Bartolome de Las Casas o Took side of natives o Interpreted the 1493 papal bull as giving a right to Spain to preach Christian doctrine peacefully; native existing property rights would be recognized • Juan de Sepulveda o Justified extinction and enslavement o Preventive conquest to protect commer cial right became the basis on which Spanish and Portuguese made complete their mastery of new lands and their peoples. Bartolome de las Casas • Protective of Indians o Gave up slaves o Advocated to Charles V o Lobbied against encomienda o Debated de Sepulveda o Indians, fully human Gustavo Gutierrez • Born, 1928 Peruvian priest • Living and working with poor in Lima • Libertarian theology: o Interpretation of the Christian faith from the life o Perspective of the poor o A Marxian form of theology o Base communities Trans-Indigenous Friday, April 29, 2016 11:32 AM 10 extra credit points Chadwick Allen - University of Washington • Trans = across, beyond, through, changing Transnational vs. trans-indigenous • The transnational o Centers the modern nation-state, its attributes, its agents, and especially its borders. • The trans-indigenous o Centers categories, experiences, expressions, or representations of the Native or Aboriginal o As that which is in some way brought together Focus on the rise of international and global organizing of Native, Aboriginal, and Indigenous peoples Where, when, how and how? Key issues: self-representation and self-definition and collective definition How to define Indigenous Peoples • With a capital I • And capital Ps World Council of Indigenous People • 1974 o George Manuel publishes The Fourth World o Preparatory Meeting in Guyana • 1975 o Policy Board meeting in Denmark o First General Assembly in Canada Formation of WCIP • Competing metanarratives of contemporary Indigenous identity: • Homogenization vs. emergence • Loss vs. invention Competing Early Definitions • Manuel's The Fourth World • It emphasizes what Indigenous peoples claim to still possess: o Distinct worldviews o Attachment to • Preparatory meeting's definition o It emphasizes what Indigenous peoples have lost since the coming of settler - invaders: o Majority population status and supra -local political power in their own lands • The Fourth World is oriented toward the future • The preparatory meeting is orie nted toward the past • Grass roots vs. Institutionalized • Fluid vs. fixed Where did 1970s activism come from? • World War II and post -war demographic upheavals • Formation of the United Nations and 1948 UN Decolonization Mandate o Denial of discourse • Various US Civil Rights struggles in the 1950s and 1960s • 1964 "Fish-ins" • 1964 First Invasion of Alcatraz • 1964: More academic discourse o The Indian Historian Parallels in other parts of the globe • First nations, Metis, and Inuit in Canada Sami in Scandinav ia • Aboriginies and Torres WCIP First General Assembly • "Solemn Declaration" • Local significance of delegates' understandings of their people's histories Draft Solemn Declaration • An unprovoked attack on innocent Indigenous Peoples • Their resilience against their enemies • Their contemporary desire, now that they are armed with a global consciousness, to regain their lost "dignity and pride" • Communal and self-reflexive "we" o Speaking to each other o An effectively closed rhetorical situati on • Brief 19 lines • Specific and composite Indigenous allusions o Native American o Sami o Aboriginal o Maori • Fourth World is made visible as a distinct corporate entity • Through counter-invention of the First World as "other people" • "Memory" o Singular o Has ensured the survival of distinct indigenous peoples into contemporary times • The revised final version: o Develops narrative more elaborately o Identifies external target audience o Assigns motives to the "other peoples" o Emphasizes "consciousness" & "memories" o Critical thrust is moral rather than taxonomic