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Week of 04/25 notes

by: Alexis Reynolds

Week of 04/25 notes HIST 1200 (History, Angela Bell, Survey of American History Since 1865)

Alexis Reynolds

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Notes covers Monday's lecture, film shown on Wednesday
Survey of American History Since 1865
Steven Watts
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Reynolds on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1200 (History, Angela Bell, Survey of American History Since 1865) at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 04/29/16
Age of Rebellion II: Vietnam and the Counterculture I: Roots II: Divisions III: Protests IV: 1968 Terms Counterinsurgery Woodstock Lyndon B. Johnson Yippies Domino Theory Tet Offensive Defoliation Eugene McCarthy Mekong Delta Campaign Robert F. Kennedy Viet Cong George Wallace SDS 1968 Democratic Convention  Cracks in surface in Civil Rights Movement and Women’s Movement  1960’s, search for a breath of fresh air became explosion  ’66-’67, mass civil disobedience, angry political confrontation’s o Product is dismay of politics and government  ’68, tour company ran advertisements to get business o “See America … while it last!” – slogan  Subject of uproar was the war in Vietnam o Set country on fire o Brought up question about race and genders I: Roots  World War 2 and after math  American policy of containment o Contain communism  Division in Vietnam (colony of France) o Slit in half o North: satellite of soviet union, communist o South: democratic, ally with English, French, and United States  ‘50’s o Poured military and economic support in south as apart of containment policy  ‘60’s (Kennedy President) o Advocate for counterinsurgery (embrace) o Lower nuclear weapons using/threats o Argue in Cold War, didn’t have situations where they would use nuclear weapons, usually used in guerilla wars (nuclear weapons) o Wanted to meet revolutions o Americans being trained in guerilla warfare, flexible military training, using high tech technology o Set American advisors to train south Vietnamese armies in counterinsurgency battle  Lyndon B Johnson (1964) o Picks up things in Vietnam o Re-election campaign against Barry Goldwater (anti- communism, from Arizona)  Paints him as a war junkie  Paints himself as a peaceful guy  Johnson wins (Kennedy effect) o Decides in 1965, that the south is in danger and United States should send combat troops to Vietnam  Marine Core o ’67-’68, commitment to South Vietnam grows o 500,00 troops in Vietnam  Domino Theory o United States government argues if South Vietnam goes down into communism it will be a domino effect on to east Asia o United States keep that domino from falling by making sure the Soviet Union government doesn’t fall  Hawaii could be next, California after  Result of several Presidents reacting to pressures in moment and not planned out  Disaster in American foreign policy and enacted problems II: Divisions  Patterns that define situation in Vietnam o Gap between expectations and reality (big gap and growing) o 1) Military in Vietnam  North army invading the South  Viet Cong  South Vietnamese who are rebels against South government  Expectation is that it would be an experts war o American technology was well developed and better that Viet Cong o Couldn’t keep up with America o Enormous bomber planes o Helicopters o Fancy chemical weapons o Ex. Defoliation Campaign  Attack American in jungle  Kill all plant life to get Viet Cong  Agent Orange being of the chemicals to kill plants o Ex. Bombing Campaign  Dropped 3 million tons of bombs  More dropped in Vietnam than Germany o Ex. Search and Destroy Missions  Troops go out to kill enemy and pacify areas to Unites States o United States would sweep them away  Reality o A guerilla war o Enemy wouldn’t stand and fight in traditional ways o Rebels melted into civilizations o Didn’t know who enemies were o Round up people in villages and try to pick out Viet Cong o Weren’t units to bomb easily o Viet Cong had tunnels everywhere that went from village to village o Ex. Mekong Delta Campaign  Invested with Viet Cong and horrible problem  1967, have to clear out rebels  30,000 troops trained and feel people that war would end if they could clear this area  6 weeks later, obvious big failure  30,000 troops had killed ~400-500 Viet Cong, the rest disappeared  Destroyed the Delta  10,000 south Vietnamese land was destroyed and left landless  Illustration of expectation v. reality o 2) Home  Expectation  Cold War mentality would prevail in Vietnam  Reality  1966-’68, growing numbers of Americans questioned war in Vietnam o Had to do with activist  Regular/middle class people were questioning the war o 1) Draft  A lot of middle class kids being drafted to fight in Vietnam  Parents and relatives uneasy about it  Lottery system o 2) Television  1 war that was brought into homes (living rooms in living color)  Saw bloodshed and frustrations of the war o 3) Causalities  Growing  ’68, 35,000 had been killed in Vietnam  ‘70’s, 58,000 killed/injured  “The body bag problem” o 4) War wasn’t working  No progress  People who bucked the war starting to become uneasy  A mess and couldn’t be won  No end in sight  Killing too many soldier  Government was ignoring III: Protest  Student Radicalism o College protest o Sills over beyond war o Critized radical problems, American imperialism o Ex. SDS (Students for democratic Society)  The Counterculture o Away from politics to culture values o ‘50’s assault of conformity, consumer life, suburbanism o Grew hair long, wore old clothes, embraced sex, drugs, and rock ‘n roll  Ex. Woodstock  500,000 stoned hippies  3 days in rainstorm  New York  Yippie Party (1968 election) o Enter presidential campaign o Rented halls, had sound systems, even bands o “Pigasus” as candidate  Ending anti-war movement o Massive protest in ’67-‘68 o Effects both parties who are questioning the war IV: 1968  Tet Offensive o January 1968 o Vietnam against Unites States military  Proved the war was not being won  Student Protest o Feb-March o Closed down universities (Columbia in New York)  Senator Eugene McCarthy o Challenged by Lyndon  Also challenged by Robert F. Kennedy o Lyndon pulled out and concentrated in war  May o Dr. King assassinated  June o Robert Kennedy seemed to be winning o Assassinated in Kansas o George Wallace  Anti-hippie  Anti-Civil Rights  Chicago Democratic Convention o 25,000 protesters o 20,000 police officers o Rioting everywhere o Democratic party almost go up in smoke


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