Psych 4 notes
Psych 4 notes Psychology 110
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donna Park on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Khaddouma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
PSYCHOLOGY 4 NOTES Social Psychology The study of how people influence each other’s behavior, beliefs, and attitudes Average number in human social groups = 150 (Dunbar, 1993) Average number of FB friends = 130 Evidence of need for social relationships: o Increased size and activity level of frontal cortex in humans compared to other animals o Negative effects of isolation Social rejection registered in brain as pain in experiments (Ex: soccer players and the 3 in red only pass ball to each other and not to the guy in blue) Socially excluded = physical pain (scanner detects these as the same type of pain) o Positive effects of interaction Increased by physiological health Social facilitation Enhanced performance on tasks in presence of others (Ex: biker in presence of other bikers or runners in presence of other runners) Attributions Process of assigning causes to behavior (EX: of boy figure moving towards girl figure because the teacher pressed a button) Fundamental attribution error o Tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people’s behavior Enduring characteristics such as personality and intelligence level o Rather than situational influences External factors such as running late, feeling stressed, or following instructions Conformity Tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure (EX: Chacos, or at checkered UT games and not wearing orange or white. Not wanting to be that person who wears a different color because you desire to be part of the checkerboard at the football games) Asch conformity study (Asch, 1955) o People standing around a round table. One person who signed up for the SONA and told everyone else is too, but only he is. Asked the question which line is the same as the other line? Answer is clearly C, everyone else says the wrong answer B. People tend to conform (agree W/ wrong ans) about %40 of the time. o Less likely to conform if at least one other person gives different answer than majority o Associated with activity in amygdala, indicating anxiety might increase conformity Psychology of groups Stanford prison study (Zimbardo, 1973) o “mock” prison setup o male participants assigned to role of prisoner or guard o procedures to deindividualize prisoners and guards assigned numbers rather than names standard uniforms Group Psychology Deindividuation o Tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are part of a larger group Groupthink o Emphasis on group member agreement at the expense of critical thinking o Happens because groups tend to rely on “common knowledge” to preserve relationships o Results in no net gain of new information Preventing groupthink o Can be prevented by assigning a “devil’s advocate” before discussion takes place (EX: someone in Judaism discussion says opposite of what everyone says) Group polarization o Group discussion often strengthens dominant positions held by group members (EX: two messy people in a relationship together and one says they’re cleaner than the other even though they are both messy) o When in a group, your own opinions and beliefs are strengthened than if u were by yourself Preventing group polarization o Inoculation effect Method to increase likelihood of a person changing their mind about a belief or opinion First introduce ideas to support belief Allows person chance to come up with own counterarguments Then align with counterarguments they generated Social Psychology o Aggression and Prosocial Behavior Obedience Social influences on aggression and prosocial (donating charity helps society behavior) behavior o Obedience Adherence to instructions or commands from others Often studies using Milgram Paradigm o Milgram Studies Participants asked to deliver shocks in a increasing intensity to another person based on performance on a memory task Experimenters manipulated style of authority figure 62% of participants delivered all the way up to maximum shock o Social Influence Bystander Effect Individuals are less likely to intervene in a situation when more people are present around them Due to: relying on the reactions of others to determine out own reaction (plurastic ignorance) Presence of others make each individual feel less responsible for intervening (diffusion of responsibility) Social loafing o Phenomenon whereby individuals become less productive in groups o Only applicable when group has shared goal o Prosocial behavior Enlightenment effect Learning about human behavior can increase the likelihood of prosocial behavior o E.g. helping, intervening, altruism Is helping ever entirely unselfish? o Increased activity in brain’s “stress regions” when witnessing others in pain E.g. amygdala o Oxytocin and dopamine reward system activated during “helping” or prosocial behavior E.g. shared grooming habits among romantic partners (ask why grooming habits is an example of this) o Attitudes A belief that includes an emotional component (dog or cat person)(drawn to something emotionally) Biggest predictor of a person’s behavior Do attitudes predict behavior? Yes and no… It shows how much society has an influence Correlation between attitudes and behavior across studies: .38 (0-1 scale) Indicates that %60 of a personas behavior is explained by factors other than their attitude o Recall the effects of groups on behavior o All our choices are not particularly our own. There are countless forces. But our culture likes to think we like to do what we want and our behavior matches what our behavior says. This research says this is only right about 40% More stable, reflexive attitudes are better predictors of behavior o (EX)- less likelihood of attend a Gator’s game vs. a Palm Beach Makos game while on vacation better predictor of behavior among people low in self monitoring o personality trait that assessed how well a person’s behavior matches their feelings and attitudes high self monitoring (changing your actions based on surroundings) like social chameleon low self monitoring- trump Where do attitudes come from? Availability heuristic - mental shortcut o Attitudes are types of “mental shortcuts” (looking at a cat not feeling happy but feeling happy when looking at a dog) this can guide your behavior. o Openness to experience o Emotional activity (gif of flipping table angrily) this means your ability to regulate emotion is not where it quite needs to be to regulate emotional activity How to attitude change? Cognitive dissonance o Tension resulting from conflicting thoughts our beliefs Can change either thoughts, or come up with a way that they fit together (EX) development of morality in children and story where guys wife is terminally ill and guy with medicine is charging a lot for it. Is it justified for the husband to steal it? People chose right or wrong. People had knowledge that both things were wrong: charging a lot and stealing. We have to think of a way to resolve this tension. Either mold it together or see which one is worse than the other alternatives to cognitive dissonance theory o self perception theory people acquire attitudes by observing their own behavior o impression management theory people don’t actually change their attitudes, but say they do to reduce conflict o Persuasion Two types of persuasion: Central route o Focus on details and thorough understanding o Informational content o Giving everyone all the information about something and then allowing them to make decision based on that Breakdown of how coke is consumed Peripheral route o Relys on making people make snap judgment thorugh emotion o Surface aspects Movie star ad drinking coke Apple example: good apple, tastes better, healthier, grown genetically well. But no one will take the time to read all this. So a peripheral route is to take any apple and put it in red dye and people will think this looks like a healthier apple and buy it. It’s quicker Persuasion Techniques o Foot-in-door Make a small request before a larger one. “I believe this car is $6000, but let me check on that” (car salesman example). Ah but with the service fee blah blah but people think well that’s a little bit higher so fine. Their foot is little bit in the door so you shove it in. o Door-in-the-face Make a large request before a smaller one. Make a very large request, and follow up with smaller one. Shock with large amount and follow up with smaller price and they are like well okay” o Low-ball technique Start with lowest request, with additional add-ons. EX: ok car is $6000, but with tax its blah blah but we can take care of that for $500 fee blah blah EX: taxes on goods, ask to go to dinner and then ask to stop for errand on the way o Persuasion and Romance Procedure to generate attraction and closeness among strangers Speed dating and you visit everyone available. Spend about 5 mins together. And at end of event you can get numbers etc. but what they did is make some people do speed dating protocalls like ask questions to them. But people who used these questions reported being closer to the person they were in contact with Stereotype Belief about the characteristics of individuals based on their membership in a group Prejudice Negative conclusions about a person, group, or situation before evaluating evidence o EX: 6 photographers and 1 actor video Ultimate attribution error o Assumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to their internal dispositions o Recall fundamental attribution error Biology of Prejudice In group bias o Tendency to favor individuals within our own group over those from outside our group EX: Polka dot shirts VS. Stripes , PD shirt people start to dislike stripe people o Increased activity in prefrontal cortex EX: empathy, consideration Out group homogeneity o Tendency to view all individuals outside of our group as similar o Increased activity in amygdala EX: fear, anxiety, quick judgements. Biologically primed to make quick judgments about people who don’t look like you Principle of adaptive conservatism o Distrust of anything unfamiliar or different can be adaptive o Prejudices can become prevalent through natural selection Discrimination o Negative behavior toward members of out groups Explicit = person is aware of their prejudice Implicit – person is unaware of their prejudice Can be measured using implicit associations test EX: lac, computer, flashing pics and phrases in front of your face very quickly. One image of dark skin and other of light skin, depending on the person, they will identify with people who will look like them. o Requires an establishment of how much difference is required to be part of out-group Creating discrimination o Minimal intergroup paradigm Creating two groups based on random factors EX: eye color, handedness, performance on task People will begin to favor members of their in group And begin to discriminate against out group EX: less sharing of resources, quicker response time on negative words on implicit associations test Combating discrimination o Methods to decrease prejudice and discrimination: Simple increase contact between members of different groups? Groups must have: Shared goals Potential for close relationship Equal status among group members Robbers cave, jigsaw classrooms Medical model. o • Presence of physiological disease or illness based on: – presence of foreign body in organism• e.g. infecCon by parasite, bacteria, virus, or object o – impairment in body’s ability to maintain homeostasis • e.g. high blood pressure, kidney failure, liver failure deviaCon from normal or standard physiological funConing• e.g. cancer, lupus, Crohn’s disease Categories of mental disorders based on : o Statistical rarity Indicates deviation from “standard” cognitive or behavior functioning in a given population o Presence of subjective distress o Impairment Interferes with ability of person to function in everyday life o Societal disapproval Not always true, but indicates deviation from what given society considers “standard” functioning Failure analysis approach - drinking and stress. It helps your stress but kills your liver. Stress relief is not a bad behavior, easing it and wanting to ease it is a good behavior. But drinking before your job or whatever is problematic when depressed or sad or etc, you que other peoples interest and stuff so they ask you what is wrong and they provide for you o being sad after something sad happened is an adaptive thing to do. But when you’re to the point where you cant heal and you’re alone all the time, it becomes a disorder. It causes enough destress in someone’s life and it becomes categorized Diagnosing psychological disorders modern diagnoses of psychological disorders must account for: o cultural context ex: symptoms of schizophrenia might be considered disordered in US, but celebrated sign of ability to communicate with spirit realm in other cultures o presence of organic cause ex: symptoms of depression can arise due to an underactive thyroid gland than cognitive processes Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) th o Currently 5 edition Must be updated regularly due: Changes in society and culture Better classification and identification of psychological disorder o Contains all available categories, prevalence statistics, and symptoms of psychological disorders Categorical model o View that mental disorders differ from normal functioning in kind (rather than degree) o Disorder is either present or not o And is different than other available diagnoses Dimensional model o View that mental disorders differ from normal functioning in degree (rather than kind) o “disorders” are just more extreme variants of normal psychological traits Anxiety disorders o Psychological disorders in which sympathetic nervous system is activated in the absence of significant environmental stress o Subcategories: Generalized anxiety disorder Panic disorder Phobias PSD Obsessive-compulsive disorder o Generalized anxiety disorder Continual feelings of worry, tension, and anxiety across many settings o Panic disorder Panic attacks: brief, intense episodes of extreme fear with physical symptoms of dizziness, light headedness, chest pain, and feeling of impending death o Phobias Intense fear of specific objects, places, or situations that cause marked change in behavior o Post traumatic stress disorder Lasting significant emotional disturbance following severely stressful event o Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Repetitive or lengthy behaviors done to reduce stress caused by obsessive thoughts o Mood disorders Depression Recurrent state of lingering depressed mood, diminished interest in pleasurable activities, and often somatic complaints (depressive episodes) Chronic = dysthymia (on going) Intermittent = major depressive disorder (does not happen a lot) 20% of American will meet criteria for major depressive disorder at some time in their life (does not happen a lot) Biology of depression o Too much “reuptake” of serotonin o Dampens brains ability to “reward” for positive experiences o Results in decreased likelihood of engaging in positive behaviors Depression vs. “normal” sadness o Adaptive role of sadness Obtaining necessary resources while in physical or psychological pain Recruits social relationships Produces drive in organism to behave differently in future situations o Adaptive processes become overactive in depressive disorders Confirmation biases = reinforce negative thoughts about self and others Depressive behaviors contribute to negative outcomes Bipolar disorder Alternations between states of dramatically elevated mood and heightened energy (manic episode) and either normal functioning or depressive episodes Highly genetically influenced Suicide Double the rate of homicide in the US Correlated strongly with the presence of mood or personality disorders Personality disorders Issues with regulatory systems to promote survival Psychological dysfunction often stems from: o Over activity of “stress centers” of brain o Activity in stress centers demand compensatory mechanisms in frontal cortex o Compensation expressed as behavioral or cognitive dysfunction Borderline personality disorder o Chronis instability in mood, identity, and impulse control High risk of suicide and self harm behaviors Unstable, emotionally manipulative relationships Often very treatment – resistant Antisocial personality disorder o “psychopathic personality” o chronic personality stability on traits of guiltlessness, dishonesty, manipulative, and self centeredness o often well-regulated when desired, and can present as charming and personable o ex: the Joker Dissociative disorders o Dissociation Disruption in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception At least one experienced during lifetime by over half of adults in US Can be due to: Blood disorders Changes in air pressure or exposure to inhalants Severe trauma Must rule out neurological causes o Dissociative identity disorder Condition characterized by the presence of two or more distinct “identities” or personality states that recurrently express themselves in a persons’ behavior Previous theories proposed childhood abuse as cause of disorder Evidence for it Differences in bodily reactions when “altered” from main personality o Respiration rate o Brain wave activity o Seeing ability o Skin conductance o Handwriting Evidence against it No differences in implicit memory patterns when altered from main personality Increase in number of diagnoses after popular media Used to be diagnosed with questionable therapeutic techniques (ex: hypnosis) Therapist belief might reinforce symptoms Schizophrenia o Severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality o Psychotic symptoms Delusions Strongly held, fixed belied with no basis in reality Hallucinations Sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus Disorganized speech Three types Paranoid Disorganized Catatonic Biology of schizophrenia o Enlarged ventricles in brain o Excess of dopamine receptors o Diathesis-stress theory Genetic vulnerability + environmental stress = development of disorder o Psychological Disorders Pediatric Disorders Autism: o Disorder marked by severe deficit in language, social bonding, and imagination o Often accompanied by intellectual deficits o Controversy over origin of autism Vaccines Parenting practices o Biology of Autism Mirror neurons Activated both when doing a behavior and when observing a behavior Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder o Condition marked by excessive inattention, impulsivity, and activity Childhood = often over activity and disruptive behavior Adolescence = often impulsivity, social and academic problems and delinquency o Biology of ADHD Slower brain wave patterns Often expected to be too fast Causes difficulties switching attention from irrelevant stimuli Decreased activity in frontal cortex Issues with inhibiting impulses and reactions Behavior disorders o Oppositional defiant disorder Often younger children Rule-breaking behavior o Conduct disorder Often older children/adolescents ODD symptoms + aggression toward people and animals Emotion dysregulation o Diagnostic considerations “normal” child behavior family patterns physiological problems o psychosomatic disorders conversion disorders more common in children than adults conversion disorders can include: o headaches o stomach aches o skin rashes o pseudoseizures Psychological and Biomedical Treatments o Psychological treatment Who does them? Psychologist Psychiatrist Clinical social workers o MSW or LCSW
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