Ch. 8 Part 1
Ch. 8 Part 1 PSYC 3310 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Lara on Friday March 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3310 Industrial-Organizational Psychology at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lisa Penney in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/20/15
Chapter 8 motivation internal state that induces someone to have certain behaviors three parts to motivation direction intensity and persistence Direction choice of speci c behaviors from different behaviors Example working extra time instead of going home and doing nothing productive Intensity Amount of effort someone uses on a task Example Sweeping fast and aggressively vs Sweeping lightly and slow Persistence Doing a behavior for a lengthy period of time Example Studying to pass the CPA exam despite possibly needing to retake the test several more times Work Motivation Theories concerned with reasons that some people perform better than others Need theories People are driven to meet certain needs like food or shelter Need hierarchy theory people are driven to ful ll their needs Two factor theory suggests different parts of work meet one of two parts of need one part deals with the job and the other part involves rewards like pay Reinforcement theory behavior is the product of rewards or reinforcements suggests that motivation is due to environmental in uences and not internal motives Expectancy theory tries to rekate environmental rewards to behavior like reinforcement theory but this theory deals with human cognitive processes that explain why rewards like to certain behaviors Self ef cacy theory deaks with how people39s beliefs about their capabailities can affect their behavior deas on how the person views their capability to be successful or not in completing a task Justice theory deal with people39s values and not focused on their needs beliefs or reinforcements suggests that people value fairness in their workplace if there is unfairness in the workplace there would be motivation to x the situation Goal setting theory how people39s goals and intentions can lead to behavior motivation begins inside like need theories but explains how environmental in uences can shape motivation and behavior Cognitive control theory concerned with goals but focus attention to feedback toward goal attainment and how discrepancies between a goal and current situation motivate behavior Action theory was crated in Germany to explain volitional self motivated and voluntary behavior at work explains how goals are intertwined into behaviors that exist until the person reaches their goal theories can be and have been integrated since some are complementary for example Locke and Latham combined part of expectancy and selfef cacy theories with their goalsetting theory Distal motivation theories deal with processes that are not a part ofremoved from behavior exampe is need theories deal with general needs that can be translated into behavior in different ways Proximal motivation theories deal with processes that are close to behavior example is goal setting theory deals with goals that lead to speci c behaviors like a salesperson selling a certain item Need theories Motivation arise for desires to be met for certain things general needs in these theories can be satisi ed in different ways Need hierarchy theory ful lling human needs is important for both physical and psychological health owest level is physical needs such as food and water for survival and highest level is psychological needs like ful lling personal life goals Maslow suggested that a need that is unmet is motivating and people are motivated by their lowest level of their unmet need if there is more than one unmet need the lowest unmet need will be most dominate Twofactor theory motivation comes from nature of the job and not outside factors like external rewards two categories are animal nature of humans like physiological needs and those of psychological growth Hygiene factors job aspects coorelate to animal needs like pay supervision and organizational policies Motivator factors job aspects coorelate to growth needs like recognition and achievement Herzberg suggested that to motivate employees and make them satisi ed with their jobs is through appropriate levels of motivator factors hygiene factors do not lead to motivation or satisifaction at work Reinforcement theory how rewards or reinforcements can affect behavior expains behavior as a functionof prior reward experiences or reinforcement history behavior is a response to an environment Law of effect is major part of reinforcement theory a certain behavior increases if a reward or reinforcement is followed after behaviors occur if a reward is contingent Incentive systems rewards are contingent on individual units of productivity like selling a car behavior increases based on a reward being rewarded based on the incentive systems like commissions for salespeople INCENTIVE SYSTEMS CAN ALSO BE USED FOR OTHER JOB ASPECTS LIKE REDUCING ABSENCES not only for job performance Expectancy theory explain how rewards lead to behavior by focusing on internal cognitive states that lead to motivation explains when and why reinforcement will lead to a behavior occurring Vroom39s theory motivation or force is a mathematical function of three types of cognitions Force expectancy x valences x instrumentalities Force amount of motivation a person is engaged in a certain behavior
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