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BIO Botany Notes

by: Sarah Martin

BIO Botany Notes BIOL 201

Sarah Martin

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About this Document

Plant structure, growth, and flowers.
Organismic Biology
Dr. Ari Jumpponen
Class Notes
Bio, 201, botany, plant, structure, growth
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 201 at Kansas State University taught by Dr. Ari Jumpponen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Organismic Biology in Biology at Kansas State University.

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Date Created: 04/29/16
BIO 201 4/25 Angiosperms evolution cont. Double fertilization: 1 sperm unites with egg -> zygote -> embryo 1 sperms unites with central cell nuclei -> triploid endosperm Endosperm = nutritive tissue for embryo; extensive in monocot seed; ex: wheat, rice, corn; absorbed into cotyledons in most dicots Ovule -> seed -> mature fruit and integuments harden into seed coat Pollination: wind, water, insects, mammals, birds Insects do eat pollen; less pollen needs to be dispersed compared to wind Insects, mammals, and birds are usually attracted to the flower by scent or color ?) What is the key difference between meiosis in flower ovary versus stamen? no A, B!, no C, no D; A Nothing, they are basically the same; B Only one female meiotic product survives; C Only one male meiotic product survives; D Meiosis only occurs in the ovary Flowers and fruit and seeds ?) angiosperm microgametophyte has... pollen grain, A at most 3; A Three nuclei or cells; B Eight nuclei or cells; C 3n endosperm; D Central nuclei; E Most but not all of the above Annual plants - Cycle completed in single season. Cycle = from seed germination to mature plant producing seeds Biennial plants - Cycle completed in two growing seasons. Perennial plants - Cycle takes several to many growing seasons or plant produces flowers on new growth, while other plant parts persist indefinitely flower parts = ovary, petals, sepals, etc. Magnoliopsida = dicots Liliopsida = monocots fertilization -> zygote lies underneath the endosperm -> endosperm divides to produce mass of endosperm tissue surrounding the embryo -> zygote divides to form 2 parts: embryo and suspensor -> suspensor anchors embryo and transfers nutrients -> embryo differentiates to cotyledons, epicotyl, hypocotyl, radicle, apical meristems -> endosperm = food for developing embryo and cotyledons; however, cotyledons are nutrition source for seedling -> monocots: cotyledon transfers food from endosperm to embryo Fruit: matured ovary and accessory parts: contain seeds; found exclusively in flowering plants Exocarp - Skin Endocarp - Inner boundary around seed(s) Mesocarp - Tissue between exocarp and endocarp = FLESHY FRUIT ^all the "carps" together are called the pericarp Variety: Can consist of only ovary and seed(s); Can include adjacent flower parts; May be fleshy or dry at maturity; May split or not split; May be derived from a one or more ovaries Simple fleshy fruit develop from flower with single carpel in pistil Drupe = simple fleshy fruit; single seed enclosed by hard stony endocarp (pit); ex: peach, almonds, olives Berry = compound ovary; more than 1 seed; fleshy mesocarp; true berry: thin exocarp with soft mesocarp; ex: tomatoes, grapes, peppers, blueberries, bananas -Hesperidium = leathery exocarp containing oils; ex: citrus -Pome = flesh comes from enlarged floral tube or receptacle that grows around ovary; endocarp paper/leathery; ex: apples, pears Pepo = relatively thick rind; ex: pumpkins, cucumbers Dry fruit: mesocarp dries at maturity Dehiscent: splits at maturity; Follicle = splits along 1 side; ex: larkspur, milkweed, peony Legume = splits along 2 sides; ex: peas, beans, peanuts, lentils Dehiscent: siliques and silicles split along 2 sides but seeds on central; partition that is exposed when 2 halves separate Silique - More than three times longer than wide Silicle - Less than three times longer than wide Mustard family: broccoli, cabbage, money plant Arabidopsis Capsules: consist of at least 2 carpels, splits different ways Indehiscent: single seed united with pericarp Achene - Base of seed attached to pericarp; ex: Sunflower seed, buttercup, buckwheat Nut - Similar to achene, but larger, with harder and thicker pericarp, and a cluster of bracts at base; ex: Acorns, hazelnuts, hickory nuts Grain (Caryopsis) - Pericarp tightly united with seed; ex: Grasses: corn, wheat, rice, oats, barley Samara - Pericarp extends as wings for dispersal; ex: Maples, ashes, elms Schizocarp - Twin fruit that breaks into one-seeded segments called mericarps; ex: Parsley family: carrots, anise, dill Complex Fruits Aggregate Fruits: Derived from single flower with several to many pistils; Individual pistils mature as clustered unit on single receptacle; ex: Raspberries, blackberries, strawberries Multiple Fruits: Derived from several to many individual flowers in single inflorescence; ex: Mulberries, Osage orange, pineapples, figs Dispersal by Wind Fruits: Samaras, plumes or hairs on fruit Seeds: Small and lightweight, or with wings Dispersal by Animals Seeds pass through digestive tract. Fruits and seeds adhere to limbs, fur, or feathers. Oils attract insects. Elaiosomes on bleeding hearts used as food by ants 4/27 Ovules develop into seeds Cotyledons = food storage organ for embryonic leaves/seed leaves; not photosynthetic but are green; lack stomata Embryo = cotyledons + plantlet Plumule = embryo shoot Epicotyl = stem above cotyledon Hypocotyl = stem below cotyledon (E comes before H in the alphabet) Radicle = tip of embryo that develops into root ?) Seed germination may be stimulating by... A acid, B grinding, C water; all of the above! Epigeous germination: Hypocotyl lengthens, bends and becomes hook- shaped; Top of hook emerges from ground, pulling cotyledons above ground Hypogeous germination: Hypocotyl remains short and cotyledons do not emerge above surface Stimulates germination: water (seed coat opens when seed absorbs too much water), temperature (optimal or stratification), light, scarification Germination events: radicle emerges -> cotyledons emerge or stay underground (epigeous or hypogeous) -> in grasses, coleoptile and coleorhiza protect the emerging leaves/radicle Seeds viability are varied based on species and storage conditions; cool and dry helps viability to last longer Vivipary = no period of dormancy; embryo grows while attached to parent 200 years old experiment; supplemental reading has a story about a frozen seed from 30,000 years ago that germinated ?) Both gymno- and angiosperms have… no A Ovaries; YES B Meiosis followed by nuclear divisions without cytokinesis; no C Fruit; no D A and B; no E A and C Plant Structure ?) Carnivorous plants… A Live in environments high in N B Live in environments high in P YES C Live in environments low in N D Live in environments low in P Leaf modifications: Carnivory: to supplement for nitrogen; ex: honey-dew, venus fly trap, pitcher plant; these plants live in nutrient deficient environments and eat bugs to take in high N food Leaves harvest solar energy and photosynthesize Leaf Structure: petiole (continues as midrib which branches into veins in the blade[Megaphyll]); damaged/old leaves are released by abscission Abscission: Abscission zone has less sclerenchyma and cells are thin-walled; Abscission auxin and ethylene controlled; Cells along the abscission layer suberize (separation layer); The purpose: isolate the leaf and protect the plant from infections and desiccation Suberin = fatty substance in cork layers and in Casparian strips More leaf modification: tendrils (sweet pea); spines (cactus); window leaves (elephant plant); bracts (not true sepals or petals) (Indian paintbrush/ poinsettias) Stem structures: Node = areas of leaf attachment Internodes = space between the nodes Functions: support the photosynthetic organs; some stems are photosynthetic (Ephedra, Psilotum, Equisetum); storage for water/starch (cactus); transport water and stuff between roots and foliage (vascular tissues) Epidermis = thin; 1 cell layer; usually with trichomes Vascular tissue = xylem and phloem <- monocotstem dicot -> Ground tissue: Cortex = tissue between epidermis and vascular tissue DI Pith = central parenchymatous tissue specialized for storage DI Stem Modifications: Stolons (strawberry); Tendrils (Virginia creeper); Cladophylls (butcher’s broom); Thorns (honey locust); Succulent stems of cacti ?) Tips of the roots may have… no A No meristems whatsoever no B Only one meristem YES C Two meristems D Up to three meristems Root function: Anchorage; Storage - biennials (carrot, beet) store energy and carbon necessary for flowering in their roots; Absorption - water and minerals; Transport - transportation of water and minerals to the shoot Root cap: one meristem pushing cells forward; Cell differentiation to columella cells (Amyloplasts(= starch containing plastics(?))- gravitropism? plants still feel gravity(?)); Peripheral cells (Shed off - root cap turn over); Mucigel: Slime comprised of polysaccharides; A root can produce mucigel up to 10% of its own weight daily; Several functions of mucigel: 1. Protection - layer of slime 2. Lubrication - with the shed peripheral cells 3. Water absorption - absorbent 4. Nutrient absorption - Mucigel increases root contact with soil water 4/29 epidermis = protective outermost layer Cortex = Hypodermis (Tissue below epidermis); Storage ground tissue (parenchymatous tissue for storage); Endodermis (“Last line of defense” - casparian strip/ Suberized layer forcing the apoplastic flow into the intracellular space - symplastic flow) Stele: Three components: Pericycle (The layer of cells that surrounds phloem and xylem, gives rise to lateral roots) Vascular tissues (Xylem and phloem; we know what these are) Pith (Interior to vascular bundles; Parenchymatous tissue; Storage?) Monocot root: siphonostele = ring of vascular tissue Dicot root: protostele = solid core of vascular tissue (X) Roots: Root modifications: Storage - beets, turnips, radish, cassava, sweet potato Aeration - mangrove; cells breathe oxygen Movement - contracting roots of lilies and ginseng; orienting the plant towards the sun or avoiding large objects ?) Casparian strip… no A Protects the vascular cylinder in shoots no B Is easily permeable to liquids YES C Forces liquids into the cells no D Allows intercellular flow of liquids and nutrients no E Contains apical meristems Plant Growth: ?) Hollow trees can be alive because… no A The canopy is spatially separated from the roots no B The canopy functions as an independent photosynthetic entity no C The center of the stem can rejuvenate and maintain function YES D Only the outer parts of the trees are metabolically active and alive How can a tree live 1,000+ years? There are very few cells that survive from year to year so the tissues are new but structure that produces them can be very old. Sequoia sempervirens (red wood) is among largest and oldest trees. Solution is the vascular cambium that rejuvenates the conductive tissues annually. There is a second lateral cambium: the cork cambium. Things that control growth: Most important - leaves (Leaf primordia control procambial differentiation; Hormones (Gibberellins and auxin) from leaves stimulate); Light (Most likely also a hormonal control; Seedlings in dark elongate faster than those in light) Apical meristem: New cells produced on the lower side to form new stem tissue; The axillary buds - resting, non-specialized tissue that form flowers or branches; Apical dominance - apical meristem controls axillary buds hormonally - the axillary buds replace main shoot, if it gets damaged Intercalary meristem: Between mature tissues at the bases of the nodes and leaf sheaths; Allow growth in absence of apical meristem - important for adaptation to herbivory in grasslands; Grasses Leaf growth: Leaf primordium below protoderm (forms epidermis); The primordium has an apical meristem and a procambial strand that forms the midrib; Meristem facing the shoot thickens the leaf; Leaf contains marginal meristems (note; not only apical) that form the blade and the petiole; Cellular expansion and division of the marginal meristems results in leaf growth Root cap: Own meristem pushing cells forward; Cell differentiation to columella cells Quiescent center: Inactive region behind the root cap; Undifferentiated cell reservoir for replacing damaged meristem cells Region of cell division: Small, densely cytoplasmic cells; Includes the apical meristem Region of cell elongation: Elongation by filling vacuoles with water Region of cell differentiation: Indicated by presence of root hairs (trichomes); Non-elongating region of the root; 95% of the plants belong to mycorrhizal families; mycorrhizal colonization results usually in loss of root hairs - see the pine root... Secondary growth: Secondary thickening; Growth derived from secondary - or lateral - meristems, i.e. vascular and cork cambia; Limited almost exclusively to (perennial) woody plants - dicotyledons and nonflowering seed plants Advantages: Without circulatory and excretory systems, plants can build new tissues and discard wastes into the older tissue; Primary tissues may not be enough to support tall plants - competitive advantage to plants that elevate their photosynthetic tissues higher. ?) There are ______ lateral cambia. no A One that produces vascular tissues no B Two that produce xylem and phloem YES C Two that produce cork and vascular tissues no D Three that produce xylem and phloem and cork no E Four that produce xylem, phloem, cork and secondary cortex 2 secondary cambia: 1) Vascular cambium: Produces secondary xylem and phloem (bifacial cambium); 2) Cork cambium - phellogen: Produces periderm and secondary cortex Vascular cambium comes from: Secondary meristems (vascular cambia) differentiate from procambium and are always located between (primary and) secondary xylem and phloem Shoots: Procambial strands between primary xylem and phloem (the fascicular cambium); Later linked by interfascicular cambium, which differentiates from the cortical cells that separate the vascular bundles Roots: Procambial strand between primary xylem and phloem (fascicular cambium); Later joined and linked by interfascicular cambium Controls the vascular cambium: Some shoot cells are predetermined to differentiate into vascular cambium (procambium); Activity hormonally controlled (auxin)- from young leaves or buds Secondary xylem produced by the vascular cambium: This is wood; Spring (early) and summer (late) wood; Because of the environmental conditions and control by hormones (decline in auxin), summer wood is denser than spring wood All xylem is dead (biologically, if not chemically). To keep the plant going, new xylem is necessary Sapwood conducts water and minerals (hydrogels +their function in xylem). Heartwood is a non-conductive landfill. Without circulatory/excretory systems, this is where many wastes - resins, tannins, gums and oils deposit Bark = All tissues outside the vascular cambium Two components of bark: 1) Secondary phloem - phloem produced by vascular cambium; 2) Periderm - suberized layer that protects and insulates the inner tissues 1) secondary phloem: Only the inner-most layers (closest to the vascular cambium) functional; Others non-functional and participate in the protection 2) Periderm: Three layers: 1) Phellogen - the second cambium: Cork cambium - originates from the cortex, secondary phloem, or epidermis; Secondary growth usually ruptures the periderm - necessary to keep adding new layers from the inside 2) Phellem - cork: Outer derivative of the cork cambium; Dead and heavily suberized 3) Phelloderm - secondary cortex: Inner derivative of the cork cambium; Cells alive, not suberized


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