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Physiology 215 Week 16 Notes

by: Maddie Butkus

Physiology 215 Week 16 Notes phys 215

Marketplace > Ball State University > phys 215 > Physiology 215 Week 16 Notes
Maddie Butkus
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About this Document

These notes cover week 16 lecture on Reproductive System
Human Physiology
Dr. Kelly-Worden
Class Notes
PHYS215, Worden
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Friday April 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
The Reproductive System Part 2 A combination of sex chromosomes determines the sex of an individual. • 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes are separated during meiosis. • The chromosomes of each pair are distributed to the sex cells by independent assortment. • 22 pairs of the chromosome pairs are autosomes. rd • The 23 pair is either XX(female) or XY (male). A gamete normally receives one member from each pair ( X or Y in male meiosis and X or X in female meiosis). • Sex determination depends on the combination of chromosomes at fertilization. • The fertilization of an ovum (X chromosome) with a sperm • with an X chromosome produces an XX combination (female). • with a Y produces XY (male). Sexual differentiation in humans depends on the presence or absence of masculinizing determinants. • The combination of sex chromosomes determines gonadal sex. • A sex-determining region (SRY) of the Y chromosome influences gonadal specificity at the seventh week of intrauterine life. The region masculinizes the gonads. • Females lack the SRY gene. Their gonadal cells do not receive a signal for testicular formation. • Phenotypic sex is the apparent anatomic sex of an individual. By sexual differentiation, specific external genitalia and a specific reproductive tract develops in each sex. • The male-type reproductive system is induced by androgens. • Male and female external genitalia develop from the same embryonic tissue. The reproductive tracts also develop from a common source. • Undifferentiated embryonic tissue develops into female structures unless actively signaled by masculinizing factors. • Genetic and phenotypic sex are usually compatible. However, several factors can produce errors in sexual differentiation. The male reproductive tract is a winding series of tubules. • The epididymis • attached to the rear of the testis • serves as the exit route from the testis to the ductus deferens • allows the sperm cells to gain the abilities for movement and fertilization • concentrates the sperm as they mature and are stored • Ductus deferens • unit behind the bladder, forming a V. • A seminal vesicle joins the last part of each ductus deferens. • Beyond the seminal vesicles, the two ductus deferens form a ejaculatory duct. • This part of the male reproductive tract joins the urethra in the prostate gland under the bladder. • A pair of bulbourethral glands join the urethra of the tract just before it enters the penis. Sexual Response The sexual response is the same in females as in males without the ejaculatory phase. Four phases: Excitement Plateau Orgasm Resolution The Fetus and Birth The placenta is the organ of exchange between the maternal and fetal blood. It is derived from trophoblastic (fetal) and decidual (mother) tissue. Maternal and fetal structures interlock. Fingerlike projections of the chorionic tissue form placental villi. They extend into the maternal blood. Fetal and maternal blood are separated by a thin chorionic layer that forms the placental villi. Fetal capillaries branch off an umbilical artery and project into the placental villi. An exchange can occur between the maternal and fetal blood. The fetal blood leaves through an umbilical vein. Maternal blood exists through maternal venules. Hormones secreted by the placenta play an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. This is a summary of some of the hormones and their effects: hCG - maintains the corpus luteum of pregnancy. Estrogen - stimulates the growth of the myometrium, strengthening it for parturition. Progesterone suppresses uterine contractions. Relaxin softens the cervix to prepare it for cervical dilation at parturition. Placental PTHrp increases plasma calcium ions in the maternal blood. Overall the maternal body systems respond to the increased demands of gestation. The changes include uterine enlargement and an increase in the amount of blood. Changes in later gestation prepare for parturition. Parturition is birth. During the last trimester: The uterus becomes more excitable Mild contractions occur. The cervix begins to soften near parturition. The fetus shifts downward, with its head contacting the cervix. Rhythmic contractions begin at the onset of labor. There are high levels of estrogen at this time. Factors triggering the onset of parturition are not well understood. Oxytocin plays a key role as labor progresses. It is a powerful muscle stimulant. CRH plays a major role. It drives the manufacture of placental estrogen. It also promotes changes in the fetal lungs. Pregnancy About 38 weeks from conception Physical changes within mother occur to meet demands of pregnancy: uterine enlargement breasts enlarge and develop ability to produce milk volume of blood increases 30% Pregnancy • Physical changes within mother to meet demands of pregnancy: – weight gain – respiratory activity increases by about 20% – urinary output increases – kidneys excrete additional wastes from fetus – nutritional requirements increase Parturition is accomplished by a positive feedback cycle. As labor proceeds the uterine contractions become more frequent and powerful. continued dilation of the cervix triggers the release of more and more oxytocin Labor occurs over three stages. The first stage is cervical dilation. Lactation requires multiple hormonal inputs. High estrogen - promotes extensive duct development in the breasts. Progesterone - stimulates alveolar-lobular development. Prolactin - also contributes to mammary gland development. An abrupt decline in estrogen and progesterone with the loss of the placenta initiates lactation. Prolactin promotes milk secretion. Oxytocin induces milk ejection. Breast-feeding has advantages for the infant. an abundance of immune cells and many substances such as lactoferrin. There are also advantages of breast-feeding for the mother. Oxytocin release hastens involution of the uterus. Also helps the mother to lose weight There is a cessation of production at weaning. Women can nurse up to 4 years. Some women can nurse indefinitely


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