Bio Week 13: notes
Bio Week 13: notes BIO 151-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan McGillick on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Biology of Humans in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Biology: Week 13 (4/27, 4/29) Module 5: Ecology and Environment Chapters 23 and 34 (credits to Kelly Murray’s power point) This sections will be studying the levels of organization of life on earth -Terms: a. Population – same species living together in a given time, place… b. Community: population of species that interact with each other a. Niche: role in community = no two species will occupy the same niche i. Examples: producers, consumers, predators, prey and detritivores ii. Creates a competition for resources: nutrients, space, water, O2, sunlight, mates, breeding sites c. Ecosystem: community and non living. Intact = sustaining -> still is in change d. Humans: how do we as humans interact with ecosystem a. Agriculture impacts = human population goes up b. Road construction = certain animal, plant population goes down Etc…. -Biotic Potential: human population = exponential growth -only limited by number of babies, age to maturity for mating, gender ratio, and the age of distribution -In graphs the factors are determined by the carrying capacity (k) = number of organisms that can be supported -What may be limits for biotic potential? –need a limit… -resources -diseases -predation pressure -changes in environment -what is the k that Eau Claire can support a population of squirrels? -Can an environment over shoot the carrying capacity? -Need Ecosystem Balance: -via Succession= change over time-> natural disasters -Interaction -Anthropogenic: “changes have brought nearly every ecosystem out of balance -Human Environmental Impact: organisms need to adapt -the most successful organisms will adapt and multiply -Why is there an increase in population after the Bubonic plague?? 1. conversion to agriculture 2. architectural advancements 3. industrialization – sanitation 4. changes in human activity 5. demographic transition -Demographic transition: form nonindustrial -> industrial 1. Pre-industrial – population stable- birth (UP) death (UP) -poor sanitation -more disease -> compensate with more babies 2. Transition – population increases – death (DOWN) birth (UP) -improvements in jobs, health, food -still producing more children 3. Industrial Stage: death (DOWN), births (slowly decline) -people realize no longer need to continue reproducing -prefer smaller families -increase in contraception and more females in the work field 4. Post-Industrial Stage: birth (DOWN), death (DOWN) -Human Population: -resource consumption and waste generation is not shared evenly -> what is the carrying capacity of humans on Earth? How much longer can we humans be supported? -some people have argued that we have already overshot our carrying capacity, others disagree. -Much of problems are actually from the production of agriculture. -Feeding the World: -technically farmers make enough food for 2,000 calories per person, but that doesn’t include foods in all categories of nutrition. -Malnutrition = not enough calories with enough nutrition -susceptible to infections, disease, and death -growth stunts or kwashiorkor (swelling of abdomen, liver) -easily malnourished form only getting food from fast-food joints = obesity -Traditional Agriculture: -Poly-culture: more than one type of cultivation, 75% of world does the traditional farming, only 25% of crops -Mono-culture: only producing one type of crop in a given area. -Montana- all about wheat=because it is efficient. *problems of mono= ruin soil by planting the same crops, pests develop resistance to pesticides, bio-diversity -Industrial Agriculture: - disturbance issues: 1. soil erosion -allows for more flooding 2. desertification 3.deforesation -more CO2 in air, less O2 -loss of habitats
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