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ASCI 112 L7

by: Yuran Liu
Yuran Liu
Cal Poly
GPA 3.67
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About this Document

biological molecules
Principles of Animal Science
Professor Burroughs
Class Notes
Animal Science




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yuran Liu on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASCI 112 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Professor Burroughs in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Principles of Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 04/30/16
Biological Molecules ASCI 112 10/22  The organization of life  Living things function & interact with each other on many levels  Organization of life is a hierarchy of levels of increasing complexity.  Cellular level  1. Atoms (Hydrogen 氢, Carbon 氢, Nitrogen 氢)  2. Molecule 氢氢 (Adenine 氢氢氢)  3. Macromolecule 氢氢氢 (DNA)  4. Organelle 氢氢氢 (Nucleus 氢氢氢)  5. Cell (Nerve Cell)  Organismal level  6. Tissue (Nerve tissue) a group of cell perform a specific function  7. Organ (Brain)  8. Organ system (Nervous system)  9. Organism 氢氢氢  Populational level  10. Population (A group of same organism in a certain area.)  11. Species (The same organism in the whole world.)  12. Community (Every species in that area.)  13. Ecosystem (All living & non-living aspects in a certain area.)  Building big molecules  Organic molecules make up bodies of living organisms.  Carbon-based core 氢氢 Macromolecules 氢氢氢氢  Core has attached groups of atoms called functional groups.  Confer specific chemical properties on organic molecules  Building materials of body = macromolecules  Can be very large  Four types  Proteins  Nucleic acids 氢氢  Carbohydrates 氢氢氢氢氢  Lipids  Macromolecules actually assembled from many similar small components called monomers. (氢氢)  Assembled chain of monomers = polymer (氢氢氢氢氢氢)  Proteins  Complex macromolecules  Polymers of many subunits called amino acids.氢氢氢  Amino acids = small molecules with simple basic structure, a carbon atom to which three groups are added.氢monomers. (氢氢)  An amino group (-NH ) (2氢)  A Carboxyl group (-COOH) (氢氢)  A functional group (R) (氢氢氢氢)  Functional group gives amino acids chemical identity  20 different types of amino acids  Essential versus nonessential  Essential: Body cannot synthesize (have to consume to contain  Nonessential: Body can synthesize  Peptide bond 氢氢  Covalent bond (氢氢氢) (strong, share elements, hard to break) linking two amino acids together 氢氢氢氢氢 氢氢氢 氢氢氢  The assembled polymer 氢氢氢 = polypeptide (氢氢)  Polar molecule 氢氢氢氢 carries partial negative charge  Complex structure  Order of amino acids that form polypeptide affects how protein folds together  Folding of polypeptide to form protein determines protein’s function  Some proteins comprised of 氢 1 polypeptide  4 different structure of protein  Primarily  Secondary  Tertiary  Quaternary  Structure determines function!氢氢氢氢氢氢氢氢  Denature (氢氢)氢氢 lost structure list function  Changes to environment of protein may cause it to unfold or denature.  Increasing temperature 氢氢氢氢氢氢 氢氢氢氢氢氢氢  Lowering pH  Denatured protein is inactive. (won’t reassemble 氢氢氢氢氢)  Nucleic Acids 氢氢  Very long polymers 氢氢氢 that store information.  Comprised of monomers called nucleotides. (氢氢氢)  Each nucleotide has 3 parts  Five-carbon sugar (氢氢氢)  Phosphate group (氢氢)  Organic nitrogen-containing base (氢氢氢氢)  5 different types of nucleotides 氢氢氢  Info encoded in nucleic acid by different sequences of these nucleotides  Adenine (氢氢氢)  Guanine (氢氢氢)  Cytosine (氢氢氢)  Thymine (DNA only) (氢氢氢氢)  Uracil (RNA only) (氢氢氢)  Two types  Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  Ribonucleic acid (RNA)  RNA is similar to DNA except that  Uses uracil instead of thymine  Comprised of just one strand (氢氢氢氢氢氢)  Has a ribose sugar (氢氢氢氢氢)  Structure of DNA  Double helix = two base pairs possible  Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T)  Cytosine (C) pairs with Guanine (G)  Bonds holding together base pair = hydrogen bonds (not as strong as covalent bond)氢氢  Sugar phosphate 氢氢氢 backbone gives support  Carbohydrate carbon hydrogen bonds strong bond lots of energy  Used for energy, sometimes structural molecules  Carbohydrate = any molecule that contains elements C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio.  Sizes of carbohydrates varies  Simple carbohydrates – one or two monomers 氢氢  Monosaccharides (氢氢) = one monomer subunit  Ex. Sugar glucose (C H 6 12氢6氢  Disaccharides (氢氢) = two monosaccharides  Ex. Sugar sucrose (氢氢), formed by joining together two monosaccharides, glucose & fructose (氢氢)  Complex carbohydrates – long polymers  Long polymer chains  Because contain many C-H bonds, good for storing energy  Bond types most often broken by organisms to obtain energy  Long chains = polysaccharides (氢氢)  Plants and animals store energy in polysaccharide chains formed from glucose  Plants from starch (氢氢)  Animals from glycogen (氢氢氢氢)  Some polysaccharides 氢氢 serve structural functions and resistant to digestion by enzymes 氢氢  Cellulose (氢氢氢) found in cell walls of plants.氢氢氢 indigestible for most organism  Chitin (氢氢) found in exoskeletons 氢氢氢 of many invertebrates 氢氢氢 and in cell walls of fungi.  Lipids 氢氢  Fats & other molecules not soluble in water 氢氢氢氢氢  Nonpolar molecules  Include fats, phospholipids (氢氢), and many other molecules  Fats are used for long-term energy storage  Two subunits  Fatty acids (氢氢氢)  Chains of C and H atoms  Glycerol (氢氢)  Contains 3 carbons and forms backbone to which three fatty acids are attached  Fatty acids have different chemical properties due to number of hydrogens attached to chain of carbons  Saturated fats typically found in animal based fat (butter) typically solid at room temperature  Unsaturated fats typically found in plant based fat (氢氢氢) typically liquid at room temperature  If maximum number of hydrogens are attached, fat is called saturated 氢氢  Usually comes from animal sources  Solid in room temperature  If fewer than maximum attached, fat is called unsaturated 氢氢氢  Usually comes from plant sources  Liquid in room temperature  Biological membranes 氢 involve lipids 氢氢  Phospholipids 氢氢 make up two layers of membrane  Cholesterol (氢氢氢) (a steroid 氢氢氢) embedded within membrane  Lipids also include oils, other steroids 氢氢, rubber, waxes 氢, and pigments.


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