Exam 4 Terms
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by alvey.15 Notetaker on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 5600 at Ohio State University taught by Derek Lindquist in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Psychobiology of Learning and Memory in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Exam 4 Study Guide. Created by Alexandra Dennis. Dr. Lindquist Psych 5600. Chapter 8 1) Perceptual Learning A) Learning that changes how we process sensory information B) If you have never been exposed to Pepsi and Coke and you try both with a blind fold on, you probably won’t be able to distinguish between the two. Repetitive exposure of Pepsi and Coke will change your perception of the two flavors and you will be able to discriminate between the two flavors easier. C) Generalization to Discrimination D) Learning occurs with out rewards, punishment or associations - non- associative learning 2) Perceptual Motor Skills A) Learned motor patters guided by perceptual input. Meaning you have to be aware of the environment around you to perform the motor movements correctly. B) A category of skill learning or procedural memory. C) Tying shoes, playing sports, snapping fingers. D) Hard to explain verbally because guided by sensory inputs. 3) Closed Skills A) Predefined movements B) Dance routine, diving routine. C) Not flexible D) Sub group of perceptual motor skills 4) Open Skills A) Based on changing demands of the environment B) Playing sports or dancing with another person C) Flexible to an extent D) Sub group of perceptual motor skills E) Some procedural skills can be open and closed skills. Walking is an example because gait is closed while reacting to the environment while your walking is open. 5) Skill memory A) Also called procedural memory B) Requires many repetitions of skill to perfect. C) Is hard to communicate verbally how to do the skill D) May be acquired without being aware- non-associative learning E) Skill memories are needed for Episodic and Semantic memories because you need to be able to speak, read and write to communicate and learn. F) Two categories of skill memory are perceptual motor skills and cognitive skills. 6) Cognitive Skills A) A category of procedural memory. B) Problem solving or strategizing. C) Tower of Hanoi D) Cognitive skills are not just inherent to humans. Some non human species that contain cognitive skills are dolphins, chimpanzees and ravens. E) Cognitive skills are basically patterns of movement that have improved over time in species. So perceptual motor skills can be culturally transmitted throughout the specie’s community and then the specific skills can be generalized to other uses. F) Monkey’s using rocks to crush nuts, dolphins using a sea sponge to filter food in to their mouths, and Raven’s using a wire to fish food out of a bottle are all examples of perceptual motor skills linking to cognitive skills. 7) Motor Programs A) Predefined sequences of movement that can be performed with minimal attention. B) Also know as a habit. C) A juggler will still try and catch a ball that was taken away mid juggling because he has a motor program for juggling. 8) Fitt’s Three Stage Model of Skill Learning A) Cognitive Stage- based on written or verbalized rules. Reading how to sketch a tree or attending a class where they are breaking down the rules to sketch a tree. B) Associative Stage- Do not need written and verbal directions now but are still very deliberative and stereotyped in your actions to sketch the tree. C) Autonomous Stage- Can carry on a conversation while sketching a tree. It does not require your attention to sketch the tree. D) As a person goes through these three stages different neural processing and memories are used to complete the task. E) Skill memory is dependent on the cerebellum and basal ganglia. 9) Four properties of skill learning A) Sensory modality and feature specific: Skill learning applies to a specific action and does not generalize to other actions. B) Performance improves at a precise rate- Power Law of Learning C) Feedback on performance is required: You can not improve performance on a specific skill if you don’t receive specific feedback on what to improve. D) Skills can be learned implicitly: Does not require verbalization to learn a new skill. You just know how to do a skill but don’t know where you learned it. 10)Law of diminishing returns A) Most learning of a new skill happens within the first couple of days. B) After many days of practicing a new skill the learning rate starts to slow down. C) It does not matter what the skill is, the law of diminishing returns always applies. If you begin learning to type, the number of words you can type in a minute will drastically improve in the first couple of weeks. After those first couple of weeks the words you can type per minute will taper off. Learning will improve drastically again only if you learn a new way to type that adds to your existing knowledge of typing. 11)Power function A) Rate of practice losing its ability to improve performance on a particular skill is predetermined. B) Applies to perceptual motor skills and cognitive skills. 12)Massed practice versus Spaced practice A) Mass practice improves performance over short term. Example) cramming for a test. B) Spaced practice improves performance over long term. Example) Studying for an hour every day for an exam that is two weeks from now. C) Three groups were trained on the same key stroke machine. One group practiced for 1 hour a day for 4 months. Another group practiced 2 hours and day for 1 month and the last group practiced 4 hours a day for 1 month. The 1 hour a day group performed similarly, if not slightly better, on the number of key strokes correct but it took less total hours for them to learn due to spacing of practice. When the groups came back a month later the spaced practice group performed better showing that spaced practice is better for long term retention of material. D) Massed versus spaced practice is know as the apportioned effect because learning and retention depends on the portion of practice allotted to the skill over a certain time frame. 13)Constant practice versus variable practice A) Constant practice- practicing a skill in the same context or under the same conditions slows learning. B) Variable practice- practicing a skill under different conditions makes learning faster. C) The more you practice kissing with various partners the better you get rather than practicing with your self in the mirror. 14) Implicit learning A) Learning without conscious awareness B) Skills can be transferred to a similar situation. C) Wax on and wax off transfers to doing karate moves. Or, for a more real world example, learning how to speak a new language early in life may transfer to the ability to speak another language later in life. Learning Spanish could transfer to another romantic language like French. D) Serial reaction time test is used to test implicit learning in the lab. Random cues shown to participants make their key pressing slower but if there is a pattern to the letters shown the participants become faster at pressing the keys because they implicitly learn and expect the next letter. 15)Amnesic skill learning A) Patients with amnesia, like H.M, are able to learn new procedural skills because stored in implicit memory. Episodic memory is impaired so they don’t remember learning the new skill but they can perform the task an improve. B) This is tested by the mirror drawing task where the participant is told to draw a figure while looking at it in the mirror. C) There is no difference in the performance of amnesic patients and control subjects suggesting that implicit memory is not stored in the medial temporal lobes where episodic memory is stored. D) Implicit memory is thought to be in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. E) A Parkinson’s patient would have trouble with the mirror drawing task. 16)Transfer specificity A) Restricted availability of some skills to particular situations. B) The skills learned in sport’s practice will transfer to multiple games but being an excellent pastry chef will not transfer to you being an excellent sushi chef. 17)Identical elements theory A) Thorndike proposed that transfer of the abilities learned in an old situation to a new situation depends on how many similar elements the two situations share. B) Similar idea to transfer appropriate processing and mood congruency of memory. C) Elements of a pastry chef and sushi chef that overlap is the fact that they are both chefs. Past that no elements are the same so performance from one to the next will be very different depending on what type of chef they are. D) At sport’s practice pretty much all the elements are the same as a game. The only things that really change are the opponents so learning will transfer relatively easily from practice to a game. 18)Talent A) Predisposition to a particular skill B) Genes 19)Expert A) Performance of a particular skill better than most B) Practice alone determines who becomes and expert. The 10,000-hour rule. 20)Rotary Pursuit Task A) A perceptual-motor task where the participant has to keep a stylus above an area on a moving rotary disk. B) This task had a high concordance rate or, in other words, twins had almost an identical performance after many trials practicing. Fraternal twins had different performances as practice increased. C) Genes alter the performance in the perceptual-motor task as practice increases making the previous performances less important. D) A certain level of ability may be wired in to our genes. Identical twins share 100 percent of their DNA and that is why they performed so similarly, even in the way they moved the stylus. Fraternal twins share 50 percent of their DNA and that is why they performed so differently. E) Genes are important but practice will also affect performance. 21)Cortical representation of skills A) Pre central gyrus- primary motor cortex B) Post central gyrus- primary sensory cortex C) Ganglia-clusters of neurons. Only ganglia in the CNS is the basal ganglia. D) Neurons in the primary sensory cortex receive income sensory information, modulates the input and then sends it to the motor cortex. The motor cortex sends the signal to initiate movement. 22)Basal Ganglia A) Groups of neurons in the medial forebrain that receive mainly sensory information from the cortex. B) Relays highly processed information to the motor cortex via the thalamus and downstream to the spinal cord via the brain stem. C) Responsible for the initiation of movement. Controls the frequency, speed and direction of movement. D) Parkinson’s patients have damage to the basal ganglia and have trouble initiating movement. When they initiate movement it is pretty stable but the person will have trouble stopping movement. E) You can see early symptoms of Parkinson’s by the pill rolling tremor of the hands. Once the hand stops movement the person will look to be rolling something in the hand or have spastic movement of the hands. 23)Radial arm maze A) A slightly different version than we previously learned about because the researchers place light bulbs at the end of each arm of the maze. Some of the light bulbs are turned on to cue the rats where the food is in the maze. B) This requires the rat to recognize a stimulus, the light bulb, and decide whether to proceed down the arm to receive food or decided that the arm does not have food, which depends on if the light bulb is turned on or off respectively. C) S-R response is required in this task D) Rats with hippocampal lesions performed well on this task. Rats with basal ganglia lesions performed poorly on this task. E) Evidence that the basal ganglia is responsible for taking sensory information in, processing it and creating a motor response. F) Notice that when there are no light bulbs in the radial arm maze that rats with hippocampal lesions make the most errors by visiting previously visited arms of the maze. A dissociation is present in hippocampal lesion animals and basal ganglia lesion animals. 24) T maze learning A) Researchers plant electrodes in to the basal ganglia of mice and record while they are learning the T maze. B) The rats have to respond to two different tones that either tell them to turn left or right. C) At the beginning of learning there are neurons that fire at the start of the maze, neurons that fire at the tone cue, neurons that fire at the turn response and neurons that fire at the end of the maze. D) As the mice learn what the tones mean and performance improves there is a down regulation of firing to the tone and turn response. There is still strong firing coming from the initiation and termination of the maze when they receive a food reward for the correct response. E) The correct turn response based on tone cue started at 50% and increased to around 90%. F) Evidence that the basal ganglia is responsible for executing a motor program that is set up by the prefrontal cortex. G) Consistent with Fitt’s three stages of skill learning. The cognitive stage is when the neural representation is broken down in to start, cue, turn and end. The associative stage might be when some down regulation starts to occur in the tone and turn phase but the mouse is still making errors in response. The autonomous stage occurs when there is complete down regulation of neural activity during the tone and turn phase. The mouse should be making few errors and strong neural firing happens at the beginning and end of the maze. 25)Weather Prediction task A) Participants were placed in fMRI and recorded participating in a control perceptual motor task. Then in the experimental task the participants were recorded doing a prediction based perceptual motor task. B) They had to predict whether a certain pattern of cards meant sunny or rainy weather. They learned what the patterns meant by trial and error. This was a probability task because no set of cards was 100% predictive of sunny or rainy weather. C) Subtracting baseline versus experimental activity there was a lot of activity in the basal ganglia when participants were learning the patterns and responding accordingly. D) Might be evidence that the basal ganglia are also required for cognitive skills and not just motor responses. The basal ganglia might be determining the most appropriate way to respond or it could be causing activation in a downstream structure in the brain responsible for making an appropriate response. 26)Cortical expansion/ plasticity A) Skill memory is stored in specific areas of the somatosensory and motor cortices for specific skills. Somatosensory and motor homunculi. B) Increased practice of these skills expand the area devoted in the gyri to that particular skill. C) Cortical expansion is not due to the generation of new neurons but the number and size of synapses increase. Glia may converge to create more gray matter which supports the functioning of existing neurons. Neuronal soma and dendrites might have a small increase in size. D) Power function of learning- Early fast learning occurs because of LTP between neurons and late slower learning occurs due to structural changes within the perceptual motor skill areas of the brain. E) Neural efficiency hypothesis- less neural activation is needed after skill is attained because of structural changes in the brain. Less activation in the front parietal region of the brain of individuals with a higher IQ. F) Evidence for the neural efficiency hypothesis is that athletes show a reduction in alpha rhythms while performing a standing motor task versus a non athlete that shows high alpha rhythms when performing the same task. 27)Cerebellum A) The most evolutionarily conserved part of the brain. B) Involved with fine motor control especially fine motor control executed in a temporal sequence. C) Dancing, competitive sports, aerobics. D) Responsible for skill memory formation and helps with skill generalization to new situations. E) In the mirror trace task patients with cerebellar damage learned the tracing task at the same rate as controls but could not transfer mirror tracing abilities to other pictures. F) It is uncertain whether motor commands are learned and memorized by the cerebellum or if cognitive skills are learned and memorized by the cerebellum. 28)Apraxia A) Parietal lobe damage causes this generally. B) Difficulty mimicking what they see in a picture or what others are doing in one fluid movement. C) Not a movement disorder but trouble accessing specific motor programs based on sensory information. D) Can’t access skill memory. E) Can reacquire motor skills but not as well. 29)Huntington’s Disease A) Autosomal dominant disease. B) Not usually expressed until 40’s C) Greater than 36 CAG repeats causes Huntington’s. The more CAG repeats you have the earlier onset and more severe the disease. D) Atrophy of the basal ganglia E) Impaired in stylus tracing task but still have working memory so can do the tower of Hanoi. F) Damage to the basal ganglia leads to impairments in the rest of the brain. G) Impaired in weather prediction task H) Mice with Huntington’s genes show lower EPSP’s in hippocampal slices and shorter in duration. Ch. 11 30)Social learning A) Also called observational learning. B) Requires active monitoring of external stimuli. C) Not all species can copy behavior. D) Copying is seen mostly in mammals. E) For example, in women the wearing of yoga pants is in style right now. This is a copying type of behavior due to some benefit that they observed while scanning external stimuli. This benefit might be acceptance in to certain social crowds, more availability to mates, or any other advantage. Also, the exchanging of beads and the action a woman is expected to perform when beads are given to her at Mardi gras is a type of social learning. 31)Bobo doll experiment A) Study of aggression in children by Anthony Bandura B) Came to the conclusion that children exhibited the most aggression towards the Bobo doll when they observed adults of the same sex being aggressive towards the doll. C) A couple of problems with this experiment was that the behavior of children outside the lab was never observed. Also, the children that exhibited the aggressive behavior had a toy taken away from them by the adult right before they started being aggressive towards the bobo doll. This is a small subset of the entire population of children. Only aggressive behavior was documented and not affectionate behavior. D) The question whether the children were really being aggressive or just trying to please the adult by mimicking them came up. In 2010, Fergusons discovered the “aggressive” actions of the children were only done because the children thought they were correct actions that would please the adult. E) The only way the experimenters could be sure that the children were learning the behavior of the adults was if the children imitated the behavior of the adults. 32)Copying A) Replication of actions or novel actions that produce a similar outcome that was observed. B) Forms of Copying i) Emulation – not exact actions but the same outcome ii) Imitation – exact actions and the same outcome iii) Stimulus matching- matching motor acts to produce and observed motor act. Learning to speak a language. iv) Social learning- Reinforcement for a behavior in the past will determine the way and individual will act in certain situations. Can be considered a form of associative learning. 33)Morgan’s Canon A) Behavior must be explained by the simplest psychological explanation B) Imitation may not be true imitative behavior but a chaining of learned associations. C) Two-action test used to determine whether an action is true imitation. 34)Two-action test A) Some naïve quails were shown trained quails that were trained to peck to receive food and other naïve quails were shown quails that were trained to step to receive food. The quails that saw the pecking quails performed more pecks that the quails that saw quails step to receive food. B) Chimps and children were shown a human adult modeler opening a box with a banana in it either by pushing a button or twisting a lever. The technique that the chimps and children saw performed was the technique that they used to open the box themselves. Children have more discrete results possibly because a human was used as the modeler. If a chimpanzee was used in the experiment, there might have been more discrete results for the chimpanzees. 35)True Imitation A) The observer must be aware of the actions in order to imitate. B) Powerful linkage between motor and sensory cortex is needed to imitate. C) A new born human can imitate facial expressions within one hour of birth. D) Higher cognition might not be needed to imitate but just the ability to use perspective taking to put yourself in the place of another. E) Facial imitation is seen in primates. We have not found evidence for other species performing perspective taking yet. 36)Emulation A) Replicate observed outcome with out copying exact motor actions. B) Chimpanzees watch as a researcher uses a rake to reach a banana. The next day a rake is placed in the chimpanzee’s cage and a banana is placed out of arms reach. The monkey uses the raked to get the banana but not in the exact way that the researcher did. For example, the monkey might use the stick end to reach the banana when the researcher used the rake end. C) Children imitate while chimpanzees and adults usually emulate. 37)Stimulus Matching A) Have to mimic motor actions in order to produce the correct behavior. B) Feedback is usually necessary to perform the action correctly C) Learning a new language is an example. You need constant feedback from a professional who speaks the language to get all the pronunciation right. D) If you were to say a word correctly the first time, then it would be imitation and not stimulus matching. E) Song birds learn vocalizations the same way humans learn language, there is a critical period where they need to be exposed to song otherwise the communication and context where it is used will not develop properly. 38)Template model of song learning/ vocal learning in song birds A) Song birds are born with a predefined template in the brain that is sensitive to species specific songs. B) Early in life the baby birds are exposed to different songs and the stimulus matching component of the template starts to develop. C) When the bird is singing it compares the song to previous songs it has heard and stored in the song template. D) The bird starts to learn what song to use in certain contexts and begins to develop a slightly personalized version of the songs. E) Not all species have a communication template that evolves over the life span. Frogs will still develop the same sound if they are raised in isolation. No learning is needed for this specie’s communication. 39)Social Learning theory A) Past reinforcement of a particular behavior or action will have an affect on the behavior of the individual in future situations. B) Associative learning aspect is involved- instrumental conditioning mainly. C) The action does not have to be done by the observer but only watched. This makes it hard to know whether the individual learned the behavior because they are not required to engage in the behavior to learn. D) Law of effect- more likely the behavior will be replicated if it results in reinforcement. E) Model must increase attention to the situation, store memory of action and reinforce in an accessible place, be able to perform the action and have a motivation to perform the action (reinforcement). Deficits in any one of these rules will lead to difficulty with imitation. 40)Contagion A) Not a form of imitation B) An inborn capacity to react emotionally to visual and auditory stimuli produced by others. C) Seeing or hearing some one yawn can cause others to yawn. Laughing at a comedy show is more likely than sitting at home alone watching a comedy show. D) Contagion underlies phobias. For example, if your mom would always scream when she saw a spider (US) then you might develop a phobia for spiders even though you never had a bad experience with spiders. This is because your mom’s scream (US) causes you to scream or be frightened (UR) to the spider which is originally a neutral stimulus. Enough times of the US and the spider will cause the spider to become a CS. The CS will now trigger the CR which is screaming. 41)Observational conditioning A) Social Transmission of fear B) Fears are not naturally inherent in species but they learn them through observing the society they live in. C) A mother monkey will inadvertently teach the baby monkey to fear snakes by her frightened response towards the snake. D) Classical conditioning to fear a neutral stimulus is possible. E) US-owl, UR- attacking the owl, CS- milk bottle, CR- attacking the milk bottle. F) One bird is shown and owl and elicits an aggressive response because the owl is a natural predator of the bird. The bird on the other side of the divider has a milk bottle placed in front of him and the reflection of the bottle on the divider makes it seem like the other bird is attacking the bottle. He learns to fear and attack the milk bottle by observational conditioning. G) Not imitation! 42)Stimulus Enhancement A) Direction of attention is shifted towards an object of interest and learning occurs as a byproduct. B) Similarity to imitation is that attention to stimulus is required. C) Difference to imitation is that the choice to attend to the stimulus is a personal behavior and learning is a byproduct. D) Blue tits in England began getting in to milk bottles by pecking at them. Pecking at the milk bottles was a personal choice that happened to coincide with learning that there is nutrition in the bottles. E) Blue tits didn’t copy other blue tits for copying sake. Their direction was turned towards the milk bottles and in order to investigate they pecked the bottles. 43)Social Transmission of Information A) Learning from another person’s experience. B) If you see a man put a dollar in a vending machine and not get a snack would you try to put a dollar in the machine? Probably not. This is an example of social transmission of information. C) Another example would be the kicking task mentioned in skill learning. The participants practice a kicking regiment and improve in performance after the first couple of days but then start to plateau. Once an instructional video of professional soccer players was shown the participants began to improve in kicking abilities again. They learned from the professional soccer players experience. D) Social conformity E) Active Instruction F) Violent Behavior and entrainment 44)Social Conformity A) Leads to social cohesion for cultures. B) May hinder advantageous behavior patterns. C) Rats smell each other’s breath to see what the other has eaten in order to know what is safe to eat. In an experiment two rats are fed rat chow and then separated in to cages and not fed. One of the rats is fed cinnamon and the other is fed nothing. When the experimenters reunited the rats the observer rat smells the breath of the demonstrator (the rat who ate the cinnamon) rat. D) When separated again and offered cinnamon or cocoa as food the observer rat picks cinnamon the majority of the time. This preference for cinnamon could be shared over multiple generations. E) Guppies were trained to escape through a hole in a net when the net tried to trap them. The other hole was closed forcing them to escape through one hole. When the second hole was opened the guppies still would go through the original hole. When new guppies were put in to the tank they would follow what the demonstrator guppies did even when the demonstrator guppies were taken out of the tank. This is an example of how social conformity could be detrimental to survival by adaptation. 45)Active Instruction A) Usually only seen in more advanced species. B) Primates use sticks to fish termites out of mounds and teach their young to do the same. C) Killer whales swarm to the shore in groups in order to catch prey and teach their young. Certain types of dolphins will do this as well. D) In human society active instruction occurs in militaries, religious processions and holidays. Active instruction is embedded within culture. 46)Violent entrainment and behavior A) A positive correlation between the availability of t.v in U.S homes and homicide rate has been found. Is it because violent t.v shows lead to an imitation of violence? Or do violent people watch more violent t.v shows? Is there a moderator? B) An experiment that showed neutral content and erotic content with either a positive or negative ending to men and women found that men who watched the erotic and negative ending content gave more shocks to women that had provoked them earlier. This suggests that certain violent stimuli might lead to arousal and a likelihood to act on that arousal. C) Imitation is rare but there might be emulation occurring in society when it comes to violence. 47)Mirror Neurons A) Mirror neurons fire when the subject is performing and watching an action. Imitative actions require the firing of mirror neurons. B) They also fire to the action’s outcome. This is evidence that motor neurons might have a role in emulation or recognizing all the motor actions that could lead to the possible outcome. C) Observed actions are translated in to meaning based firing to anticipate the intention of the individual making the action. D) There are different mirror neurons that fire to different stimuli. Most of the mirror neurons fire to watching a hand pick up something. Some mirror neurons were allocated to the mouth and others to manipulating the object. E) May be neurons required for empathy. F) There is a lot more action in mirror neurons when observing and copying an action that when being instructed to do an action. fMRI studies with human participants found this when participants were instructed to observe a finger moving on screen, imitate a finger moving on screen or respond to a verbal command to move a finger. G) Mirror neurons play a role in to integrating different sensory information. Language and copying the tone or sound of a voice might be a function of mirror neurons. Stimulus matching. H) Possible functions of mirror neurons: Imitation, emulation, stimulus matching and empathy. I) In humans, other species performing actions can activate our mirror neurons. J) Phantom limb pain and mirror therapy activates the mirror neurons. K) Embodied cognition- Interconnectedness between the brain and the body. Mirror neurons might be the cognitive component that influences sensations and our perception of sensations. L) Song birds have mirror like neurons that are capable of stimulus matching but not behavioral imitation which requires more brain power. Though birds still have to map sensory memories of songs on to motor outputs. 48) Hippocampus and food preference A) Rats maintain a memory for novel food smelled on another rat’s breath for months. B) When rats were exposed to a novel food smell and then received hippocampal lesions 1 day, 10 days or 30 days after exposure to the smell; they experienced time-dependent retrograde amnesia if they received surgery 1 day after. C) Evidence of episodic like memory of smells being stored independent of the hippocampus after consolidation of smell memory. 49)Autism and Asperger’s syndrome A) A neurodevelopmental disorder on a spectrum ranging from non-verbal to gifted in discrete subject areas with mild social deficits. B) Have a hard time taking the perspective of another person and imitating what they see especially if they don’t see a purpose to the action. C) Echolalia, repeating words that other people say, can be common on the spectrum. D) Mind-blindness theory is usually used as a possible reasoning behind the symptoms of autism. This is the inability to recognize another’s perspective. E) Mirror neurons have been shown to have attenuated firing that is prolonged when people on the spectrum attempt to imitate facial expressions. F) The Social Top-Down Response Modulation (STORM) model hypothesizes that there are other brain structures that might communicate with the mirror neurons and produce the social deficit. This is a vague model right now. 50) Frontal Lobes and Imitation A) PFC damaged individuals will sometimes exhibit echolalia and imitative behavior difficulties similar to Autism. B) In the imitative experiment-where PFC damaged patients were told to imitate certain fingers that were marked on video- patients had trouble moving their finger if it was not moving on the screen. If the mark told them to move a different finger than the one moving on the screen, they would move the same finger that was moving on the screen and not the correct one. C) Clue that maybe the PFC inhibits the mirror neurons and that is impaired in Autistic individuals. So much sensory stimuli may be getting to the mirror neurons with minimal inhibition from the PFC and cause imitative behavior or freezing due to overwhelming stimuli.
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