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by: Tia Spears

Notes Biol 2120

Tia Spears
GPA 3.0

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theses are notes for blood
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Spears on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 04/30/16
BIOL 1120 Blood Review Questions 1. What are the four components of blood? Which are formed elements? What is each components function?  Blood components o Formed elements and plasma o Formed elements:  erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets  Erythrocytes  transport respiratory gases in the blood  Leukocytes  defend against pathogens  Platelets  help clot blood  prevent blood loss from damaged vessels  Plasma  fluid portion of blood  contains plasma proteins and dissolved solutes 2. Describe in detail the three functions of blood.  Transportation o Transports formed elements and dissolved molecules and ions o Carries oxygen from and carbon dioxide to lungs o Transports nutrients, hormones, heat and waste products o “Delivery system” for the body  Regulation o Regulates body temperature  absorbs heat from body cells  released from blood at body surface  as blood transported through vessels of the skin o Regulates body pH  absorbs acids and base from body cells  contains chemical buffers that bind and release hydrogen ions o Regulates fluid balance  water added to blood from GI tract  water lost in urine, skin  exchange of fluid between blood plasma and interstitial fluid  contains proteins and ions  exert osmotic pressure  pulls fluid back into capillaries  Protection o Contains leukocytes, plasma proteins, other molecules  help protect the body from harmful substances o Platelets and plasma proteins  help protect body against blood loss 3. When whole blood it separates into three components. Explain what these components are and what percentage of whole blood they make up.  1. Erythrocytes o lower layer of centrifuged blood o 44% of sample  2. Buffy coat o middle slightly gray-white layer o composed of leukocytes and platelets o less than 1% of sample  3. Plasma o straw colored liquid at top of tube o remaining sample 4. What is hemocrit? Why do males have a higher count hemocrit than females?  Hematocrit o percentage of volume of formed elements o clinical definition: percentage of only erythrocytes o adult males between 42 and 56 percent o adult females between 38 and 46 percent o males with higher hematocrit due to testosterone  stimulates kidney to produce more erythropoietin  promotes erythrocyte production 5. What is plasma composed of? Blood considered a colloid, why? Where are most blood plasma proteins made?  Plasma o Composed of  water (92%)  plasma proteins (7%)  dissolved molecules and ions (1%) o Extracellular fluid o Similar composition to interstitial fluid o Protein concentration higher in plasma than interstitial fluid  Plasma proteins o Blood considered a colloid  contains proteins in plasma o Include  albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, and other clotting proteins  enzymes and some hormones o Most produced in the liver o Others produced by leukocytes and other organs 6. What is colloid osmotic pressure? Why is it important? What factors can influence or affect colloid osmotic pressure?  Colloid osmotic pressure o Osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins  prevent loss of fluid from blood as moves through capillaries  helps maintain blood volume and blood pressure o Can be decreased with disease  e.g., liver disease, resulting in decreased production of plasma proteins  e.g., kidney damage, increasing elimination of plasma proteins  result in fluid loss from blood  results in fluid retention in interstitial space 7. What are the different types of blood plasma proteins? What percentage of plasma is made up of each? What are the functions of each type of blood plasma protein?  Albumins o Smallest and most abundant plasma proteins o Make up 58% of total proteins o Exerts greatest colloid osmotic pressure  helps maintain blood volume and pressure o Act as transport proteins  Carry ions, hormones, some lipids  Globulins o Second largest group of plasma proteins o Make up 37% of total proteins  transport some water-insoluble molecules, hormones, metals, ions  also called immunoglobulins or antibodies  play part in body’s defenses  Fibrinogen o Make up 4% of total proteins o Contributes to blood clot formation o Following trauma, converted to insoluble fibrin strands o Plasma with clotting proteins removed  termed serum  Regulatory proteins o Less than 1% of total proteins o Includes  enzymes to accelerate chemical reactions  some hormones (e.g., insulin) 8. Why is blood considered a solution? What types are solutes are found in blood?  Blood considered a solution o Contains dissolved organic and inorganic molecules and ions o Include electrolytes, nutrients, gases, waste products o Polar or charged substances dissolving easily o Nonpolar molecules requiring transporter protein  Nitrogenous by-products of metabolism—lactic acid, urea, creatinine  Nutrients—glucose, carbohydrates, amino acids  Electrolytes—Na , K , Ca , Cl , HCO 3– Respiratory gases—O and CO  2 2  Hormones 9. Explain the structure and function of erythrocytes (RBCs).  Erythrocytes o Biconcave discs, anucleate, essentially no organelles o Filled with hemoglobin (Hb) for gas transport o Contain the plasma membrane protein spectrin and other proteins  Provide flexibility to change shape as necessary o Are the major factor contributing to blood viscosity o Structural characteristics contribute to gas transport  Biconcave shape—huge surface area relative to volume  >97% hemoglobin (not counting water) 10.What is the hemoglobin? What is hemoglobin’s structure? What are the different forms of hemoglobin?  Hemoglobin (Hb) o Hemoglobin structure  Protein globin: two alpha and two beta chains  Heme pigment bonded to each globin chain o Iron atom in each heme can bind to one O mole2ule o Each Hb molecule can transport four O 2 o O2loading in the lungs  Produces oxyhemoglobin (ruby red) o O2unloading in the tissues  Produces deoxyhemoglobin or reduced hemoglobin (dark red) CO loading in the tissues o 2  Produces carbaminohemoglobin (carries 20% of CO in the 2 blood) 11.What is hematopoiesis? Where does hematopoiesis occur? What are hemocytoblasts?  Hematopoiesis o Hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis): blood cell formation  Occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton, girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur  Hemocytoblasts (hematopoietic stem cells) o Give rise to all formed elements o Hormones and growth factors push the cell toward a specific pathway of blood cell development  New blood cells enter blood sinusoids 12.What is erythropoiesis? Explain in detail the phases of erythropoiesis including the hormonal mechanisms that control the process.  Erythropoiesis o Erythropoiesis: red blood cell production o A hemocytoblast is transformed into a proerythroblast o Proerythroblasts develop into early erythroblasts o Phases in development 1. Ribosome synthesis 2. Hemoglobin accumulation 3. Ejection of the nucleus and formation of reticulocytes o Reticulocytes then become mature erythrocytes 13.How long to RBCs live? What happens to the components of RBCs as they are broken down?  Life span: 100–120 days  Old RBCs become fragile, and Hb begins to degenerate  Macrophages engulf dying RBCs in the spleen  Heme and globin are separated o Iron is salvaged for reuse o Heme is degraded to yellow the pigment bilirubin o Liver secretes bilirubin (in bile)) into the intestines o Degraded pigment leaves the body in feces as stercobilin o Globin is metabolized into amino acids 14.What is anemia? Specifically, what is sickle-cell anemia? What causes sickle- cell anemia?  Anemia: blood has abnormally low O -car2ying capacity o A sign rather than a disease itself o Blood O 2evels cannot support normal metabolism o Accompanied by fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, and chills 15.What are leukocytes? What is leukocytosis?  Leukocytes o Make up <1% of total blood volume o Can leave capillaries via diapedesis o Move through tissue spaces by ameboid motion and positive chemotaxis Leukocytosis: WBC count over 11,000/mm o 3  Normal response to bacterial or viral invasion 16.What are granulocytes? What are the different types of agranulocytes, and what are their functions?  Granulocytes o Cytoplasmic granules stain specifically with Wright’s stain o Larger and shorter-lived than RBCs Lobed nuclei o o Phagocytic  Neutrophils – kill bacteria  Eosinophils – kill parasites  Basophils - Large, purplish-black (basophilic) granules contain histamine  17.What are agranulocytes? What are the different types of agranulocytes, and what are their functions?  Agranulocytes o Agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes o Lack visible cytoplasmic granules o Have spherical or kidney-shaped nuclei 18.Describe the process of leukopoiesis.  Leukopoiesis o Production of WBCs o Stimulated by chemical messengers from bone marrow and mature WBCs  Interleukins (e.g., IL-1, IL-2)  Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) named for the WBC type they stimulate (e.g., granulocyte-CSF stimulates granulocytes) o All leukocytes originate from hemocytoblasts 19.What is leukopenia? What is leukemia?  Leukopenia o Abnormally low WBC count—drug induced  Leukemias o Cancerous conditions involving WBCs o Named according to the abnormal WBC clone involved o Myelocytic leukemia involves myeloblasts o Lymphocytic leukemia involves lymphocytes  Acute leukemia involves blast-type cells and primarily affects children  Chronic leukemia is more prevalent in older people  Bone marrow totally occupied with cancerous leukocytes  Immature nonfunctional WBCs in the bloodstream  Death caused by internal hemorrhage and overwhelming infections  Treatments include irradiation, antileukemic drugs, and stem cell transplants 20.What are platelets? Describe the process of thrombopoiesis .  Platelets o Small fragments of megakaryocytes o Formation is regulated by thrombopoietin o Blue-staining outer region, purple granules o Granules contain serotonin, Ca , enzymes, ADP, and platelet- derived growth factor (PDGF) o Form a temporary platelet plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels o Circulating platelets are kept inactive and mobile by NO and prostacyclin from endothelial cells of blood vessels 21.What is a thrombus? What is an embolus, and how can these conditions be prevented?  Thrombus: clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel o May block circulation, leading to tissue death  Embolus: a thrombus freely floating in the blood stream o Pulmonary emboli impair the ability of the body to obtain oxygen o Cerebral emboli can cause strokes  Prevented by o Aspirin  Antiprostaglandin that inhibits thromboxane A2 o Heparin  Anticoagulant used clinically for pre- and postoperative cardiac care o Warfarin  Used for those prone to atrial fibrillation 22.Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups. Why is it important to know a person’s blood type? What groups can receive blood from each other and what groups can donate blood to each other and why? Explain agglutination.  There are 45 different Rh agglutinogens (Rh factors)  C, D, and E are most common  Rh indicates presence of D  Anti-Rh antibodies are not spontaneously formed in Rh individuals  Anti-Rh antibodies form if an Rh individual receives Rh blood +  A second exposure to Rh blood will result in a typical transfusion reaction 23.What are some examples of diagnostic blood tests? Why are they important?  Hematocrit  Blood glucose tests  Microscopic examination reveals variations in size and shape of RBCs, indications of anemias  Differential WBC count  Prothrombin time and platelet counts assess hemostasis  SMAC, a blood chemistry profile  Complete blood count (CBC)


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