PSY 325 Week 11 Notes
PSY 325 Week 11 Notes PSY 325
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 325 at Colorado State University taught by Karla Gingerich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Lecture 28: Ch. 12 Monday, April 11, 2016 1:02 PM • Test yourself o The need immediately before self -actualization according to Maslow: • Esteem o Humanists generally believe that you an achieve free will by: • Choosing your construals of the world o According to Carl Rogers, you be come a fully functioning person only if you have experienced: • Unconditional positive regard • Humanistic Therapy (Carl Rogers) o If we didn't get unconditional love, • We may have developed conditions of worth (I am loved more IF…) • This makes it hard to be fully functioning o Also, we may experience discrepancies between our view of how we really are (our real self) and our ideal self • The wider the discrepancy, the more problems we experience o Within the context of a genuine therapeutic relationship, one can decreas e that discrepancy, and… • Become a fully functioning person: § Happy § Feels valuable § Loving § Ethical § Accepting of others § Open-minded § And living a life "rich in emotion and self -discovery" • How? § Treat client as his/her own expert (phenomenology) • Be non-directive § Provide a genuine, non-judgmental, caring relationship § Listen actively o Carl Rogers' plan for Gloria (the Gloria Tapes) • If she senses a realness in meaning, she will be able to be more real within herself • There will be a change in a manner of her expression --from remote toward more immediacy of experiencing o Gloria Tapes • Should I tell my daughter the truth or not? § He can't answer it for her, but he can help her work toward her own answer § He won't answer it because his theory is that she is the expert of her own life and has to control it for herself • What Gloria wants: a Utopia § She doesn't get her utopia (whole, complete) feelings as often as she'd like • Rogers reflects what she has said, and talks about the authentic experience • Kelly and Personal Constructs o George Kelly's Role Construction Repertory Test a.k.a., the Rep Test • "Repertory" or repertoire: a stock/set of skills or types of behavior that a person habitually uses § Activity: drive, relation (family member), in -laws § This list means these are your primary construals-- i.e., how you primarily think about people § Kelly says these tell us a lot about people • Kelly refers to these as chronically accessible constructs § i.e. the interpretations/lenses that we use to interpret someone o Therapist's role: help client examine (or become aware of their) construals and choose which to keep or change Lecture 29: Flow & Ch. 13: Cultural Variation in Experience, Behavior, and Personality Wednesday, April 13, 2016 1:03 PM • Csikszentmihalyi: 1934- present o Created the concept of flow o Want to enhance your life? • "Spend as much time in flow as possible" • Flow has to be something you're really interested in (your magnet -- what you're drawn to) o Flow is not synonymous with happiness o The best state of experience is when challenges and sk ills are balanced, • Attention is focused, • And time passes quickly o You have to have the perfect balance between skill level and challenge level, so as to not end up anxious/worried or bored • MW #9 Ch. 13 • Culture and Personality o Culture imposes a set of lens es for seeing the world, learned through enculturation o These lenses, or construals of reality, show some variation from place to place and group to group o Personality is related to construals o Personality matters everywhere in the world ; culture gives us more clues* to understanding it • *Clues are always ambiguous…but something is usually better than nothing… • Characteristics of Cultures o Measured self-compassion in countries: Taiwan, Thailand, and U.S. • Found that people in Thailand scored highest on self-compassion, Taiwan was lowest scores, and U.S. scored in the middle o Caution: over-generalizations (don't compare Asians to U.S., because Asia is a huge continent) o CuPS approach: Culture x Person x Situation • Hofstede Defines "Culture" (Dutch cross-culture psychologist) o Culture= the collective programing of the mind that distinguishes one group/category of people from another o What's the function of culture? He says: • It is the glue that keeps societies together • The moment you have a society, yo u get a culture because of the particular relationships that make up the society • It's the unwritten rules of an inevitable social game • Nicole Brandes- consultant who works with companies interacting cross -culturally and internationally o Culture: comprises of all visible and invisible rules telling us what is right, wrong, good, and bad • We know these from birth o Also refers to it as a game, in which we recognize the different cultural rules o The way we speak is a reflection of our culture, and if we want to pla y the game, we have to understand the rules • Characteristics of Cultures (Cont.) o Is it offensive if someone brings extra friends to your wedding reception? o Will you settle down and live your life near your parents, so you can care for them as they age? o Who decides what you do on Sunday afternoons? o Should you thank the person who made you a beautiful dinner? Lecture 30: Ch. 13 Friday, April 15, 2016 1:02 PM **exam 4 on Wednesday: Chapters 12 and 13 only • Characteristics of Cultures o Tightness and looseness • Tight cultures allow very little deviation from what is expected behavior § (Recall strong and weak situations) • Tighter cultures Looser cultures higher situational constraint in lower situational constraint in everyday life everyday life More religious Less religious Fewer political rights/liberties More political rights/liberties More media controls Fewer media controls Greater individual impulse control Lower individual impulse control o How many people are left -handed? • Worldwide: 10% • U.S., Canada: 10-12% • Western Europe: 6% • Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Japan, S. Korea: 3% ro lower § Asian children in U.S.: 6.5% § Depends on where the person is born, and age (see below) o Generational Shifts: France, Italy, Brazil, and U.S.: • 6% left handed of over 65 years old • 15% of 30 or younger • These indicate the cultural influence of parents on raise their children, tightly or loosely o Higher score= Tighter culture • Pakistan: 12.3 (tightest culture) • India, Malaysia: 11 • Singapore: 10.4 • South Korea: 10 • Turkey: 9.2 • Japan: 8.2 • China, Portugal: 7.9 • Mexico, 7.2 • Italy, U.K.: 6.8 • U.S.: 5.1 • Ukraine: 1.6 (loosest) • The researcher's interpretation of these scores: based on current events in these locations, we know that no way (tight or loose) is b est for mental health o Historically, related to threats (ecological, political, etc.) • Tighter cultures Looser cultures More natural disasters, historically Fewer natural disasters, historically Higher child mortality in 20th century Lower child mortality More territorial threats in 20th Fewer territorial threats in 20th century century • Tightness and looseness is related to density and diversity § More diverse: looser § More dense (more people): tighter § A combination of these two: diversity trumps density, and it will still be looser • A very dense place with no diversity will still be tighter o Complexity (note Funder's caution about complexity) • Funder doesn't believe in it because it's assigning values to cultures • More complex culture Less complex culture More information based Less information-based Higher GNP Lower GNP More cities Fewer cities More personal computers Fewer personal computers o Individualism and collectivism • This dimension corresponds to the deep structure of cultural differences • These cultural dimensions enable us to distinguish countries, but are not about differences between members of societies… § They don't necessarily define individuals' personalities o Self-construals • Collectivists emphasize the interdependent self § Feel best when fitting in, contributing to goals of family, goals of group § Internal desires are often "tamed" to preserve unity and harmony § Behavioral consistency is less important § Interdependent view of self map by Markus and Kitiyama, 1991 • Individualists emphasize the independent self § Feel best when pursuing own goals, dreams, living authentically, in flow § Might consider wishes of others, but ultimately, the individual's prevail (or success) § Behavioral consistency is related to mental health § Markus and Kitiyama • Collectivists Individualist Higher need for harmonious Higher need for positive self - relationships regard Social hierarchies more important Social hierarchies less important Fewer political rights/liberties More political rights/liberties More media controls Fewer media controls Greater individual impulse control Lower individual impulse control o How important is love in your decision about whether or whom to marry? • In collectivist cultures, it was important that the person they married be accepted by their social group (family) • In individualist, love is more important for marrying someone, not others' opinions o How important is it to defer to authority figures? o And whose responsibility is the communication? The speaker's, or receiver's? o What if you, the co -pilot, disagree with the pilot's decision? • "ethnic theory of plane crashes" § Gladwell tries to show that plane crashes happen because of cultural communications § Just before a deadly crash in Washington, D.C., in 1982, the first officer's comments to the captain…
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