PSY 325 Week 12 Notes
PSY 325 Week 12 Notes PSY 325
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 325 at Colorado State University taught by Karla Gingerich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Lecture 31: Ch. 13 Culture Monday, April 18, 2016 1:04 PM Test yourself • Which of these ideas is most closely associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow? o People are good and have an innate need to make themselves better • Which theorist would make the stat ement that individuals are driven to meet their needs? o Maslow • Kelly emphasized concepts that come to mind quickly for an individual, called: o Chronically accessible constructs • The U.S. is a culture of: o Dignity • Researchers have further divided collectivist and individualist cultures into another dimension, related to whether people are viewed as essentially equal, or different from each other. This dimension is called: o Vertical-horizontal Ch. 13 • Characteristics of Cultures - Plane crash • Just before a deadly crash in Washington, D.C. in 1982, the first officer's comments to the captain… o He is pointing out the ice on the plane and how bad the weather is • The issue here (according to Gladwell): the hierarchy o The captain still makes the dec isions o Captain responds "I think we can go here in a minute," so he ignores the co - pilots suggestions o The co-pilot doesn't think he can override the pilot; this is what Gladwell observes • Gladwell said there are more of these crashes in Asian airlines than other airlines, because the vertical hierarchical dimension is stronger in those cultures than our culture (but still present in the U.S.) • Characteristics of Cultures • Children's answers to a Kohlberg -style moral dilemma: o "Should Ben steal the money?" • American kids said it's wrong to steal the money • Indian kids said it's wrong to show up at a wedding without the rings; you have to have the rings o Kids' conclusions are varied based on their cultures and what is more important • Examples More collectivist More individualist Pakistan Australia China U.K. India Canada Peru U.S. Asian Americans, African Americans, Latinos in U.S. Europeans in U.S. Women in cultures Men in cultures • Should we utilize 3 categories (instead of 2)? o Dignity o Honor o Face • In dignity cultures, the individual is seen as valuable in his/her own right o Being "true to oneself" is encouraged o People are sensitive about being known and accepted "for who I am" • Honor cultures emerge emerge where danger is higher and people must protect themselves (e.g. weak laws or law enforcement) o Protecting oneself is encouraged o People are more sensitive to threats, including insults to reputation • And work hard to minimize these threats • Face cultures are more common in cultures with stable hierarchies that emphasize cooperation o Harmony and humility are also emphasized o People are sensitive about public conflict, and work hard to minimize it • Comparing Traits across cultures • Do average levels of specific traits vary between cultures o Probably, but a lot of misinterpretations happen o Example: average self-esteem is measured as quite high in Canada, and quite low in Japan • But what are we actually measuring? Is the comparison appropriate or meaningful? • Do the same traits apply across cultures? o Results are mixed o The "personality profiles of cultures" (pg. ) o Others, such as the study of Bolivian Forager Farmers taking the Big 5 inventory find a "poor fit…" • Meaning the big 5 factors didn't all emerge in th is culture o Same thing happened in China, where Big 5 factors didn't come out of the test • Found significant variations • E.g. The "O" was replaced by interpersonal variance o The Big Five factors that most commonly emerge in many cultures: C, E, and A • N is variable, • And O is the least cross-culturally reliable • Ecology and Personality • How did cultures become different? o A lesson from Truk and Tahiti (islands): • In Tahiti, fishing is easy • The ecology is such that it's not a difficult endeavor like it is in Truk • You had to be much more aggressive, fearless, sensation seeker in Truk to get where the fish are § Men in Truk are much more aggressive § Perhaps this is how ecology leads to personality and behavior • Ecology --> culture --> socialization --> personality --> behavior Lecture 32: Ch. 15 (4/22/16) • EW due April 28th!!! • Chapter 15: Personality Processes: Perception, Thought, Motivation, and Emotion o Perception • To understand individual differences in perception, ask what comes to mind quickly for any given person § (Does this remind you of anything?) - Chronically accessible constructs • These Perceptual Predispositions are an important part of personality • Where do individual differences in perception come from? § Temperament (nature) • With a genetic, biological basis for quicker or slower _____ responses § Experience (nurture) • Learning • Priming - a setup can prime the next response • Activating an idea by repeatedly perceiving it; in new situations, the idea comes to mind more readily • Ex: watch a show about cheaters and then see you GF talk to another guy - think she's cheating • Through experience and priming, perceptions can become automatic § Many problems relate to automatic, chronic accessibility of certain constructs • "Rejection sensitivity", hostility, depression, etc. • Very sensitive to rejection or threat § What about chronically accessible positivity? • We think these people may be fake, insensitive, etc. • Yes! (But wait: Are those people just "well defended?") • Not realistic • So: Perceptions, especially frequent, accessible ones, will provide a lot of info about personality § Is everything a Rorschach then? - all up to interpretation § How do I know this about a person? - these conceptions that I have, how do I know it • Prolonged interaction o Thought • Conscious thought determines many behaviors (but not all) § Consciousness is "whatever a person has in mind at the moment" and it tells us a lot about personality § How much does STM hold? In other words, how much can we be conscious of at once? • 7 +- 2 • If it is limited, what do you want to be in there? • If we fill STM with thoughts of the past or worries about the future, are we wasting our consciousness? • Reminds us of existential • Mindfulness is being highly attentive to the present § Over time, people learn to interrupt negativity and thoughts of regret, self - pity, fear, and guilt § Changing the constructs that are chronically accessible, • Which changes personality! § This is what therapy can do • Therapists (and friends?) keep us conscious (aware) and a ccountable • Otherwise, the mind can churn away on unsolvable problems…forever • Work and practice, with support, can bring some emotional relief. We can make changes!
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