Animal senses and movement
Animal senses and movement Biol 204
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Benthem on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 204 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Marcy Litvak, Dr. Tom Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Plant and Animal Form and Function in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Animal Senses I. Chemoreception – sensing chemicals. Olfaction and gustation A. Molecule binds to chemoreceptors, sends an action potential down a neuron to the brain. Information depends on frequency of signal B. Smell st 1. 1 mammals- eutharians: believe they relied heavily on smell 2. Development odor sensing genes – gene family with crossing over. If unreciprocal crossing over, can lead to mutation into new sensory gene 3. Longer antennae have more chemoreceptors 4. Sharks – rostrum with spiracle to detect blood in the water. C. Taste 1. Taste buds – clusters of chemoreceptors 2. Salt taste – Na channel in receptor, Na depolarizes, sending an action potential to th+ brain. 3. Sour – presence of H through ion channels, depolarization, AP to brain 4. Bitter – evolved as response to plant toxins/chemicals. Specific chemoreceptor for specific molecule, works like olfactory II. Sight A. Starfish – tube feet with light receptors B. Planaria – eye spots C. Arthropod eye – pretty good. Compound with numerous lenses. Pixelated image. Larger eyes lead to more pixels. This allows them to see all around them and detect movement really well. D. Vertebrate eye – really good. Camera eye. Evolved in cephalopod to focus incoming light onto receptor cells 1. Sclera – white of eye 2. Cornea – transparent connective tissue 3. Iris – contracts and expands pupil to allow light in 4. Retina – has a blind spot due to nerve cells between the lens and the rods and cones 5. Rods – green, red, blue pigments to receive wavelengths of light. Can detect over one million shades 6. Cephalopod – has nerve cells on other side of rods/cones, so no blind spot 7. Gene mutation led to two types of rods (green and red) in primates. Allowed us too see fruit colors 8. Mantis shrimp has 16 genes for color reception 9. Coelacanth – lots of shades of blue E. Esp – lateral line system in fish. Microvilli sense pressure changes in water F. Ampulla of lorenzini – sharks with pores in rostrum to detect electrical fields of animals Movement I. Theory for diversification of animals – rise of predators led to an arms race II. Muscle contraction A. Muscle fiber – long cylindrical cells B. Myofibril – lots of sarcomeres – contract C. Sarcomeres – contractile unit 1. Actin – thin filament 2. Myocin – thicker filament. Anchored at enter with a sliding filament model. See slides 3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum – smooth ER. Stores Ca releases when signaled, which allows for binding, leading to the power stroke. Ca + moves back into reticulum via active transport. III. Muscle fiber types – genetic component to how much of each we have A. Type I – slow twitch oxidative. High myoglobin and mitochondria. Endurance. B. Type IIA – fast twitch oxidative. Intermediate. C. Type IIB – fast twitch glycolytic. Appear white with low myoglobin and mitochondria. Oxidize ATP quickly, fatigue easily. IV. Skeletal systems – used for movement A. Hydrostatic – muscles compress and release for movement B. Endoskeleton – muscles attached to tendon, which attaches to bone C. Exoskeleton – contract harder over shorter distances, use like a lever. Allows incredible strength
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