PSY 315 Week 9 Notes
PSY 315 Week 9 Notes PSY 315
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 315 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer Harman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Lecture 22: Resisting Conformity (3/21/16) • Resisting Conformity o Disobeyers of Milgram (Rochat & Modigliani) • 3 themes came out of the disobeyers reason for not conforming: § One should not impose their will on another • i.e. Not going to go against the person's will § One doesn't want to be responsible for what happens to another participant § One is always free to choose "no" to harmful demands on another o Reactance o Assert Uniqueness of se lf o Presence of an ally • When we have an ally, we can diffuse the pressure because we are not the only one breaking the norm o Idiosyncrasy credits • These are earned each time one conforms to a group's expectations • Decreased (lose credits) when one deviates fro m a group's expectations • Using norms to Influence others o Example: Telling people they use more energy than their other neighbors --> leads to them decreasing energy use • Vice versa: telling people they use less energy than their neighbors --> gives them justification for using more energy • Cults o Groups become a cult when deemed "dangerous" and "deceptive" by the government o Many examples • Jim Jones • Cult in Waco, TX o Hale-Bopp got many people to conform to his beliefs… • People believed they were "graduating" fr om the human evolution level by leaving their bodies § 39 people died during this cult movement • How do cults do it? o They create their own social reality • Focus on the negatives in their own lives and give the group a sense of purpose toward an incentive -- usually "a better life" o The communicator • Cult leader= an "expert" on the topic/mission o The message • Creating & Maintaining a Cult o Audience-- must be struggling in their lives o The Group • In-group: anyone who believes the cult/cult ideas are correct • Out-Group: wrong for questioning your participation in the group § This leads to isolating the cult member from their family and friends outside of the cult, because it is preached in the cult that the out group is wrong o Recruitment • Send current members out to recruit ne w members o Foot-in-the-door technique: first step is to come to "potluck" -- then are told to come again next week and bring someone else to return the favor of the free food • Members are made to feel like they owe the group § Leads to a chain of favors one always has to repay o Scarcity technique: told that the issue is one that must be dealt with immediately • Otherwise everyone is in danger; crucial to help the cult now • Practice questions o People are more likely to conform to informational social inf luence when… • The situation isn't a crisis o Solomon Asch wanted to … • Study conformity in unambiguous situations • **Know Milgram, Asch, and Sherif • Unambiguous = obvious situations o Which situation is most likely going to help someone refuse conformity? • If they have an ally-- if one of the treammates refuses first o Students went swimming in a creek, ignoring "No swimming" and "No trespassing" signs. They're ignoring… • Injunctive norms (what you are told you should do) • *you can't violate "social influence" -- because it's just an influence not an instruction; you have a choice • Descriptive Norms= what people are doing Ch. 11: Leaders & Groups • What is a group? o Group: 2 or more people that interact and influence one another • Perceive themselves as part of a group • Share common goals • Have a stable relationship over time • Somehow interdependent (entiativity) • Why form & join groups? o Basic human needs (Schutz, 1958) • Inclusion- feeling accepted & like you belong • Control- sense of control in life (need group members to hel p tackle issues in life that can't be handled alone) • Affection- love, to be liked by others • Gain self-knowledge based on what others think of us • We have a need to belong evolutionarily • How do groups function? o 2 types of injunctive norms (what you should do ): • Prescriptive: how you should behave • Proscriptive: how you shouldn't behave -- don't do those things Lecture 23: Groups (3/23/15) • How do groups function? o 2 types of injunctive norms • Cohesion: interpersonal vs. task cohesiveness § Interpersonal cohesion: respect for working with the people or working well with others as a team because of liking § Task cohesiveness: simply working well together, not necessarily liking o People's roles in a group can be formal or informal • Fundamental types: § Instrumental : functional aspect (leader, helps achieve its tasks) § Expressive: role to provide emotional support and maintain emotional status • Two types of Group Influence o Collective: engaged in common activities but with minimal direct impact • Nonsocial groups o Cohesive: 2 or more people are dependent on one another • Social groups o If you could do anything without getting caught activity • Rob a bank • Category of your task: antisocial (so collective group type) • Deindividuation o Responsibility becomes more diffu se the larger group o Leads to: • Feel less accountable • Increased arousal occurs-- especially in loud, confusing situations (i.e. - riots) • Inhibitions lower • Increases obedience to group norms • Diminished self awareness o Crowds & Deindividuation: Halloween Studies • Dierner et al. (1976) § Trick or treaters more likely to steal extra candy than individual kids § But they wouldn't steal extra if individualized by being asked their names • Beaman et al. (1979) § Anonymous children stole more than kids who were asked their firs t names--except when there was a mirror behind the candy bowl (less likely to steal if they saw themselves in the mirror) • Social Facilitation o We are influenced by the mere presence of others o Triplett study (1879)-- children played piano faster when other s tudents were present • Your performance gets better when in presence of others (ex. Running faster at a track meet with an audience) • Zayjonc & Social facilitation o Performance gets better only when task is easy o If task is hard, or you don't practice enough, presence of others makes it worse • Proved this in a study with cockroaches • Social facilitation only improves performance when you've "mastered" the skill § Well-learned responses • Examples: bicycling, lifting weights, eating rapidly • Why are we aroused in the pr esence of others? o Alert o Evaluation apprehension o Distraction • Social loafing: people exert less effort on a team than when alone o Want a free ride o This effect only happens when the task is additive (everyone contributes -- not individually identified) o Presence of others relaxes efforts o Additive tasks of each member contributes to a single group product -- work harder for some • Why does loafing happen? o Diffusion of responsibility -- not clear who is doing the slacking o Free-rider effect: get equal credit for their work o "sucker" effect: everyone loafs and group productivity decreases • We loaf less when… o Personal efforts are identifiable o If a task is appealing, challenging, or involving o If task is meaningful & important o If we think our contribution is essential o If we are working with friends vs. strangers o If group expects to be punished for poor performance • No individual is fired or promoted o If group is small and cohesive o *These are all ways to avoid loafing • Crowding o Large crowds interfere with well -learned behaviors o Intensifies feelings (like how movie is better in theaters) o Behavioral sink (Calhoun, 1962) • With rats in water -- developed their own groups • Territoriality (Altman, 1975) o Primary territories (bedroom, car, etc.) -- people get more aggressive o Secondary territories-- class seating o Public territories
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