PSC 1 Week 5 Notes
PSC 1 Week 5 Notes PSC 1
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Dillard on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Simonton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
4/25/16 Psychological Treatments Psychotherapy: any psychological intervention designed to help people resolve emotional, behavioral, or interpersonal problems, with the goal of improving the quality of their lives • ~20% ofAmericans have received psychotherapy at some point in their lives • women, CaucasianAmericans, higher socioeconomic groups, highly educated, people with medical insurance tend to seek help more often People who provide treatment • clinical psychologists • scientist-practitioner model (Ph.D.) • practitioner-scholar model (Psy.D.) Psychiatrists • • medical doctor—can prescribe medicine • Counseling Psychologists • Clinical Social Workers • School Psychologists • Marriage and Family Therapists • Psychiatric Nurses Effective Therapists • little difference in effectiveness between experienced and novice therapists • professionals know how to operate within the system and choose more effective treatments Insight Therapies • aim to cultivate and expand self-awareness and self-knowledge • Psychoanalysis • developed by Sigmund Freud • goal is to decrease guilt and frustrations and to bring aspects of the unconscious to conscious awareness • treatment tends to be lengthy and expensive • six core techniques • free association—client says wha comes to mind • interpretation—therapist forms explanations • dream analysis—dreams reveal unconscious themes • resistance—client avoids what is really going on • transference—client projects feelings onto therapist • working through—helps client gain insight into their problems • Psychodynamic Therapy • focuses more on symptom relief • theoretical approach • issues: • research shows insight is not necessary to relieve distress • little evidence for “repression” or hurtful memories • HumanisticApproach • therapies emphasize development of human potential and the belief that human nature is basically positive • focused on the importance of taking responsibility for our lives and living in the present • person-centered therapy • developed by Carl Rogers • non-directive • therapist must be: • authentic and genuine express unconditional positive regard • • show emphatic understanding • goal is to increase awareness and heightened self-acceptance, moving towards self- actualization • Cognitive-BehavioralApproaches • BehavioralApproach • general principals of learning are applied to the learning of maladaptive as well as adaptive behaviors • focuses on specific problem behaviors and the variables that maintain them—less focused on underlying problems • goal is to change maladaptive behaviors by learning new, desirable ones • Exposure Therapies • clients are confronted with anxiety-provoking situations with the goal of reducing their fear • we can “unlearn our automatic anxiety responses by challenging avoidance strategies • effective for treating specific phobias, panic disorders, agoraphobia, social phobia, and anxieties associated with OCD • Systematic Desensitization • therapist helps client build an anxiety hierarchy and learn relaxation techniques • people cannot be relaxed and anxious at the same time • uses counterconditioning by repeatedly pairing an incompatible relaxation response with anxiety • Flooding • more extreme form of exposure therapy • client experiences extreme exposure to an anxiety-provoking object or situation for prolonged periods (e.g. 1 hour) • Modeling in Therapy • used to build and develop effective coping skills (particularly social skills) • assertion training and behavioral rehearsal • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies • our beliefs and automatic interpretations about ourselves and the wolf can strongly influence our feelings and behaviors • Cognitive-FocusedApproach • focused on how cognitions and thought patterns maintain • goal is to challenge core beliefs and distorted thoughts • most helpful for depressions and anxiety disorders • Group therapies • individuals with common problems met regularly with a therapist to help themselves and none another • client realizes that he/she is not alone • ex: alcoholics anonymous, family therapies 4/26/16 Psychological Treatments II • Biomedical treatments—attempt to directly alter the brain’s chemistry or physiology to treat psychological disorders • Drug Therapies • psychopharmacotherapy—use of medications to treat psychological problems • today antidepressants are the most commonly prescribed medications among adults • medications do not help patients build active coping skills, so it is best when paired with therapy • for mood disorders: • depressive disorder: • antidepressant medications • cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) • bipolar disorders: • lithium • anti convulsive medications (seizure-reducing) • for anxiety disorders: • adult anxiety disorders: • CBT • short-term relief: • Valium or Xanax (can be addicting) • general relief • SSRIs • specific phobias • systematic desensitization • schizophrenia • medications are essential • thorazine or haldol • many unpleasant side effects • psychological treatments: social skills training • Electroconvulsive Therapy • involves brief electrical pulses to the brain to produce a seizure • used to treat severe problems as a last resort • can result in short-term confusion or memory loss • electromagnetic stimulation • vagus nerve stimulation • transcranial magnetic stimulation deep brain stimulation—used for extreme parkinson’s and other extreme • circumstances • Psychosurgery • brain surgery to treat psychological disorders • prefrontal lobotomy—sever connection between prefrontal cortex and rest of the brain • used as an absolute last resort with severe OCD, depression, and bipolar disorders 4/28/16 Module 3 Human Development • Human development continues throughout the lifetime • special considerations in human development • bidirectional influences • ex: children can effect the environment and the environment can effect children • cohort effects: effects that result from a group of people growing up at a particular time • ex: younger generations text more whereas older generations talk on the phone • early experiences: early experiences effect later development (ex: parenting), humans are resilient—we are influenced throughout our lives • nature vs. nurture—we are influenced by genetics and environment • obstacles to healthy prenatal development • teratogens: environmental factors that can negatively impact prenatal development • alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome • rubella and birth defects such as deafness • pika virus and microcephaly • Prenatal development • all major organs are established by 9 weeks • brain begins developing at 18 days gestation • proliferation: neurons develop very quickly • more neurons are developed than are needed at infancy and they migrate and form brain structures • Physical development • infancy • born with reflexes that help them survive: sucking reflex (to eat), rooting reflex (touching baby’s face will make it turn towards the touch) infants that are swaddled develop slower • • adolescence • onset of puberty starts around age 12 but range until 18 on average • onset of puberty starts around age 11 and ranges until 14 on average • adulthood • as we age: • decreased muscle tone, increased fat • decline in sensory abilities • reproductive changes • declines in motor coordination • increased age-related diseases • there is great variability in how people age • Cognitive Development: developing mind and brain • occurs in a series of stages and is more continuous • learning occurs through physical experience, social interaction, and biological maturity • Cognitive theorists • Vygotsky: • children learn through social and cultural influences (scaffolding, training wheels— parents provide structure for children to learn new skills) • zone of proximal development—children are ready to use the scaffolding provided by the parent • Piaget: • children are little scientists (learn and discover by interacting with the world around them) and develop in stages, they are not mini adults • conducted research with children in Universities in Switzerland and France • ASSIMILATION: incorporation of new info into current way of thinking about the world • child knows four-legged animal is a dog, sees cow and says “doggy” • ACCOMMODATION: modify the current way of thinking to include new information • new understanding of doggie and cow—dog is at home, cow lives on farm • Sensorimotor (birth-2years): children understand the world around them based on physical interactions • Preoperational (2-7years): children can perform mental operations on objects, they see things only from their point of view • he used the three mountain task to test this (also could be that they just cannot do mental rotation) • Concrete operational (7-11 years): children can perform mental operations, but only for actual physical events Formal operational (11 years to adulthood): children can think abstractly •
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