PSY 315 Week 10 Notes
PSY 315 Week 10 Notes PSY 315
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 315 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer Harman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Lecture 24: Groups (3/28/26) • Process Loss o Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving skills o Leads to: • Communication problems • Failure to share unique group information • Effect group decision making • Risky shift & group polarization o Risky shift (Stoner, 1961) • People more cautious alone than in a group • Tends to only occur when decision is reduced by consensus • Enhances initial leaning of the group decision • More risky or more conserva tive decisions o Factors leading to group polarization • Persuasive arguments § With a slight bias in one direction, you'll hear more arguments favoring that side • Social comparison § When members realize group is leaning in one direction, they may seek acceptance by moving further in that direction • Groupthink o Making an incorrect decision is not as bad if the group decision is reached (even if you know it’s the wrong decision) • Only happens frequently in sit uations where it doesn't matter to be wrong • With higher risks, people still aren't as critical, so as not to deviate • Why care about groupthink? o When a space shuttle exploded, one person knew there was a gas leak, but even when he spoke up, no one listened because the rest of the group (NASA) didn't believe him o Other examples: Pearl Harbor, Bay of Pigs, US escalation of Vietnam war without evidence • What is groupthink? o Faulty decisions being made because of high pressure to not displease the authority • Example for US decisions: not disappoint the president o Leads to deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment o Does so at the expense of rational thinking • Signs of Groupthink o Group begins to feel invulnerable (untouchable) o Collective rationalization: members discount warnings and ignore new information/alternative evidence o Belief in inherent morality: feel righteous about their cause and view others as bad/enemy opinion o Stereotyped views of outgroups: negative views of the "enemy" and unresponsive to compromise o Direct pressure on dissenters • Members are under pressure to not express arguments against the group's views (the out-group person is shut out/fired/disposed of) o Self-censorship • When dissenter feels ignored, they end up not sharing the information o Feelings of unanimity • No dissent= feelings of consensus/agreement o Self-appointed "mind guards": meant to protect the leader of the group from information that is alternative/problematic to the leader's idea s • Knowledge is power o Access to a variety of media sources from around the world to prevent groupthink • Remedies to Groupthink o The leader should assign the role of critical evaluation to each member o The leader should avoid stating preferences and expectation s at the outset o Each member of the group should routinely discuss the groups' deliberations with a trusted associates reactions o One or more experts brought in from outside on a staggered basis to challenge views of members • Allows group to make informed dec ision o At least one member plays devil's advocate o Lead set aside time to survey warning signals before final decision o Use secret balance (ex. Anonymous vote) for protection of sharing disagreement • Group Problem-- Solving o Problem- solving situations • Groups try to reach conformity • Focuses conversation only on what you know § Bring in outside information to education • Better decisions made in pairs -- 2 people= double the knowledge § More effective than one large group (more ideas) o Brainstorming • Illusion that groups can stimulate creativity • Illusion of group effectivity-- ideas are not better generated by groups § Most ideas come when alone o Factors that reduce effectiveness of brainstorming (groups) • Production blocking: lose interest • Free riding/social loafing-- group has done enough • Evaluation apprehension: nervous about unrealistic idea sharing • Performance matching; only work as hard as everyone else is (lazy/less productive) • Group Problem Solving o When to use it? • Multiple items or complex tasks • When the best individual can't be found for one single response item • Leadership and Power o Every group has leaders and followers (throughout life) o Effective leaders: Hitler, Ghandi • But why effective? § Common goal § Confident and unwavering o Leader: • Expertise & skills • Social skills • Leadership o Involves persuading people to put aside individual concerns for a common good o Good leaders have cognitive abilities that often aren't assessed before chosen o Gender & leadership: small differences • Women lead more democratically than men Leadership & Groups (3/30/16) • Elements of Power • Power: ability to control your own outcome and those of others o Freedoms to act • Status: an evaluation of attributes that is a result of differences in respect & prominence • Authority: power derived from institutionalized roles or formalized positions in a hierarchy • Dominance: behavior enacted with the goal of establishing power (or demonstrating it) • Influence of Power on Behavior • Approach/inhibition theo ry: o More power= care less about other's perceptions of them o Behavioral constraint= less power= more constraint (careful judgment) o More power = green light; less power = yellow light (cautious) • Good Leaders • Leadership and personality o "great person theory" • The right person in the right situation o Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership • Task-oriented: high and low control situations § Delegate, take charge • Relationship-oriented leaders: moderate control situations § Can get people to cooperate better democratic ally • *these 2 types of leaders have their trade -offs • What's in a name? (video from the daily show) • Results of cooperation activity: making a decision to benefit yourself vs. for the greater good o Everyone in class could have gotten points, but 19 people ask ed for all 10 points, so no one got points • Increasing cooperation • Communication o Threats are ineffective o Negotiation (bargaining -- finding solutions that are beneficial for everyone o Integrative agreement-- important to have a neutral party • Superordinate goals-- hard to find an agreement that fits everyone o But when working together, it's easier to find an agreement to a crisis • Fairness o Distributive and procedural justice Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination (4/1/16) • Video Clip o Avenue Q musical-- everyone's a little bit racist • Dimensions o Cognitive: stereotypes o Affective (emotional): prejudice o Behavioral: acts of discrimination • Stereotypes o Beliefs about personal attributes of a group of people • "typical" characteristics • Buzzfeed video "I am ____, but not ____" § Meaning I don't fit ____ stereotype o Often inaccurate or over -generalized • Why do we stereotype? o Categorization • Stereotypes act as heuristics • "us" vs. "them" labels § Quick categorization of people allows us to structure our thoughts for the duration of the interaction o Illusion of out-group homogeneity • In-group differentiation: make in -group more differentiated within your friend group, whereas out-group is seem as more alike than they really are o Exposure o Distinctiveness: if you're the outlier in a g roup, what you do stands out, which makes your actions judged as representative of others like you o Exemplars: the "broken person" -- leads people to overemphasize the good aspects of that person's group o Distinctive events: anything different is coded more e xtensively in memory and the person who did it is more likely to do it again (availability heuristic) • Illusory correlation: assuming that because someone in a group did something, means others in their same group are more likely to also do it than someone from another group o Parent distinctiveness: we see someone different from us doing an unusual activity and we assume they enjoy it -- whereas we wouldn't assume that of our own in - group • Prejudice o Attitudes toward members of a group • Opinions based on membership in the group (like or dislike) o Affect- some driven by how we perceive their responsibility of being a part of that group (ex. Quadriplegic for riding a motorcycle vs. being a victim of a car cr ash) o Stigmatized groups: perceived more positively and with more empathy if you seem innocent in the way you became a part of the group • Dual Attitude Systems o Implicit • Automatic emotional reactions -- more honest/telling of true behaviors o Explicit • Conscious attitudes • You can control these to make yourself seem better in self -report measures • Discrimination o Behavior: physical restricting of groups, etc. o Forms • Interpersonal: direct discrimination between 2 people • Institutional: reflects the powerful group's perspective about a group of people other than themselves § Ex. This could be a hiring qualification (ex. Height requirement denying women access to the position) • Origins of Prejudice o Personal factors/personality • Prejudice against others because they threaten se lf-esteem, especially social status o Authoritarian personality -- right-wing authoritarianism (Altemeyer) • Adorno-- said there are cultures with a strong value of following authority (strict, disciplinary, no questioning the authority)
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