PSY 315 Week 11 Notes
PSY 315 Week 11 Notes PSY 315
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 315 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer Harman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Lecture 27: Prejudice cont. (4/4/16) • Personal factors-- origin of prejudice • E.g. threats to self esteem • Parenting style-- authoritarian • Weakness that people feel on themselves is projected onto other groups in society -- which reflects their self -value o Children learn from parents to dislike groups that don't have power • 2 perspectives on Authoritarianism: o Original psychoanalytic perspective: • Origins: personality conflicts with stern, harsh parents during childhood o Revised perspective • Origins of Prejudice • Attributional Biases o Ultimate attribution error • Group serving biases: out -group members get no flattering outcomes; in group members get flattery o "Just world" Bias: individuals believe they live in a just world where everyone gets what they deserve; therefore, behave just and orderly • Self-fulfilling prophecies: we unknowingly can create/fulfill our stereotypes/perceptions of others when interacting with them (because our way of interacting changes) • Social learning • Normative rules: can reinforce our prejudices to group members (rules from institutions) • Categorization (previously described) o Social identity Theory (by Henri Taijfel): comparing our in-groups with outgroups that are less well off can raise our self -esteem • We desire to feel good about ourselves • Part of our identity comes from the groups to which we belong • Motivated to enhance our own image that people see • Group Prejudice-- Allocation of Resources • Scapegoat theory: blame a group/single person for problems • Realistic Group conflict theory : o Competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility • Loser: becomes frustrated • Winner: becomes threatened • Result: much conflict • Other sources of Prejudice • Social inequity: o Social dominance theory: (Sidanius & Pratto) • Helps to rationalize status differences • 3 types of human hierarchies: § Age (older people are those in charge -- ex. Congress) § Gender (male in power) § Arbitrary (race, class, ethnicity, religion, etc.) o Religion • Relative status chart Lecture 28: Racism (4/6/16) • Racism o Genetic variability • Essentialism • Population concept (clusters) § A lot more genetic variability o Lingering essentialism o Prejudice is alive and well • Risk aversion • Big discrepancy in race perception about racism being a problem § The dominant group doesn't perceive it as being an issue • Racial Prejudice o Originally called "old -fashioned racism"= openly verbally negative toward the outgroup o Modern racism: • Denial that there is a problem • Antagonism to demands of minorities for equal tre atment § Dominant group doesn't believe minorities need more • Result: resentment for special favors of minority groups • Housing: racial discrimination o Rural minorities: housing conditions still worse than any other population (Source: HAC, 2002) o Integration still met with resistance • In Fort Collins, 90% white • Living in housing segregation limits our interaction with other races -- so it's hard to change housing segregation • Effects of Racism o "The nature of prejudice" book by Gordon Allport • Reactions to racism: § Anxiety, withdrawal § Self-blame/self-hate, denial (appear more as dominant group in denial) § Clowning--best way to diffuse tension is to be funny § Increase group pride: reject negatives, embrace positives about group § Fight back § Enhance striving o Stereotype Threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995) • When your group feels threatened, you live up to the stereotype • Gender Prejudice o BEM sex role inventory • What do your ratings of yourself mean for your gender identity? • Androgyny, masculinity, and femininity o Sexual stereotypes • Are they accurate? • Social role theory o Eagly (1987) o Sex differences are magnified by unequal social roles • Due to division of labor o Are stereotypes changing? • Yes, from the 70's; people aren't outright sexist • Types of Sexism o Benevolent sexism: "women are morally sensible" • Good with women as long as they're conforming to the rules o Hostile sexism: "she's go her man on a leash" • 3 shared components: § Paternalism § Ambivalent sexism § Heterosexuality • Does sexism still exist? o Glass ceiling (workplace/education) o Women get: • Lower salaries § Women make 70 cents to every $1 men make • Lower status jobs § Perceptions of female leadership • Still not as favorable as men • Lower career expectations § Social dominance orientation? • Women go for careers that matc h their values (and that make less money) Lecture 29: Prejudice (cont.) (4/8/16) • Classism o Largely ignored in social psychology o Stereotypes of ppor whites • Trailer park, drugs, redneck, crackers o Hurricane Katrina o Poverty • People assume those in poverty aren't working hard enough (our ideology) • Countering Prejudice's effects o Social learning: being mindful to not continue our prejudice into the next generation • How a population will change attitudes toward a group to be more positive o Contact hypothesis: more contact you have with an outgroup member (positive), you will change your attitude toward that group. • Make it work by: § Groups should be equal status § Common goal § Informal § Norms over equality § Interactions should disconform stereotypes o Recategorizing: • Common group identity model • Superordinate goals o Awareness of stereotypes o Models to disconform stereotyping • Bookkeeping model: awareness of your actions will change them • Conversion model: an interaction with some outgroup changes your ideas of them • Stereotyping model: create stereotype for others o Abstract vs. concrete construal • Concrete: stating the literal § Ex. "that person is helping someone" • Abstract: implying something inherently good by interpretation § "that person is helpful" • We describe our own group members abstractly, and outgroup members concretely • Becoming aware of your descriptions of others can help prejudice • Other ways to reduce prejudice o "just say no" to stereotyping-- experiment • Can minimize the associations, but can be very tedious task (consistent repetition of no) o Take perspective of the other person Test yourself • Know stereotype vs. schema
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