Biology 120 Week 11 Notes
Biology 120 Week 11 Notes BIOL120
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Delaluz on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL120 at Towson University taught by Dr.Partain in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Principals of biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Julia Delaluz Christa Partain Biology 120 Week 11 Notes 4/25-4/29 Species Interactions Mutualism: relationship where both members benefit (pollination) Parasitism: relationship where one member benefit (zombie ants) Competition: for mates/territory o Resource partitioning: using different parts of a resource to avoid or reduce competition Predator & Prey Populations are correlated inversely Coevolution of Predator & Prey: o Camouflage: Body shapes, colors, or patterns that enable an organism to blend in with it’s environment, remain concealed from danger o Warning Coloration: Defense strategy of prey species that warns predators that they produce distasteful/toxic substances that kill/harm predators o Chemical Warfare: Defense strategy of prey species where they produce distasteful or toxic substances that kill/harm predators o Mimicry: Evolution of similar appearance in two or more species, which often gives one or all protection Trophic Structure: o Food chain: one member from each level- plant eaten by herbivore eaten by carnivore o Food web: more realistic, many members from each level o There are trophic levels- 1=producer, 2= primary consumers, 3= secondary consumers, etc. energy flows o Biomass Pyramid- producers biggest part, then herbivores, then carnivores o Energy Pyramid: law of tens (10% of energy available) Communities Over Time: o Succession: process through which a regular progression of communities will regrow at a particular site Primary, secondary Secondary Succession: Pioneer Community: o species that are first to colonize a habitat after a disturbance (fire, plowing, logging) Transition (intermediate) Community: Julia Delaluz Christa Partain Biology 120 Week 11 Notes 4/25-4/29 o community of organisms that establish themselves at a particular site based upon conditions produced by activities of pioneerS Climax Community: o most stable community in a habitat, one that tends to persist in the absence of a disturbance Ecosystem Ecology Concerned with the passage of energy and nutrient through communities and what effects energy and nutrients have on those communities Nutrient Cycling: nutrients cycle through an ecosystem, and are renewed if the ecosystem is sustainable. o Carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, water cycle Energy Flow is one way from the sun & out as heat Carbon Cycle: o Carbon reservoirs: Sediments and rocks, ocean, soil, atmosphere, biomass on land o Enters Atmosphere by: Aerobic respiration, burning of fossil fuels, volcano eruption, deforestation The Greenhouse Effect: o Greenhouse Gases: carbon dioxide, water, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons The greenhouses gases impede the escape of infrared wavelengths (heat) from the Earth into space These molecules absorb these wavelengths and radiate much of that energy back toward the Earth Effects of Climate Change o The lower atmosphere’s temperature may spike higher by 2.5 to 10.4 F degrees in this century Rising sea level Increased rainfall & flooding Heat waves & wildfires Crop failures Contagious diseases Water wars Julia Delaluz Christa Partain Biology 120 Week 11 Notes 4/25-4/29 o Climate is not weather Nitrogen Cycle: o Makes up 80% of atmosphere o Remaining Reservoirs: Seafloor sediment Ocean water Soil Land, marine biomass Atmospheric nitrous oxide o Gaseous nitrogen is difficult to break down o Only certain bacteria (including decomposers), volcanic action, and lightning convert N2 into forms that can enter the food web o Nitrogen scarcity: ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate are vulnerable to leaching and runoff o Human Impact on Nitrogen Cycle: Deforestation & grassland conversion = losses of nitrogen from the soil Farmers use tons of fertilizer high in nitrogen, causing acidification of soil water Nitrogen enters waterways from fertilizer and sewage, causing eutrophication Burning fossil fuels releases nitrogen dioxide, which is deposited in ecosystems with nitrogen- poor soils Phosphorous Cycle o Largest reservoir is in Earth’s crust o No gaseous phase, resists leaching o Gets concentrated in erode sediments, agricultural runoff, & outflows from industries o Main limiting factor in natural systems; causes eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems Hydrological Cycle o Plants and trees move a lot of water Laws of Thermodynamics Law of Conservation of Energy o Energy cannot be created or destroyed o Can be changed from one kind to another Entropy o Every time energy is changed from one kind to another, some of the energy is lost to space as heat energy and cannot be recovered Julia Delaluz Christa Partain Biology 120 Week 11 Notes 4/25-4/29 Energy flow o Energy cannot be recovered so a constant inflow of energy from the sun is necessary to sustain the planet o Photosynthesis, respiration Ecosystems Sustained by o Photosynthesis: chloroplasts are required Process by which light energy turns into food energy Requires light energy, water, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll Produces: food energy (glucose) oxygen Carried out by: plants, algae, many bacteria species o Respiration: ATP adenosine triphosphate. Mitochondria are required o Aerobic Respiration: Process by which food energy is turned into ATP energy that the cell can use Requires food oxygen mitochondria Produces ATP energy, carbon dioxide, water Carried out by almost all animals, most fungi, plants and several bacteria Contemporary Issues Bioaccumulation: (match to chemical primarily responsible on test) o Gradual buildup over time of a chemical in a living organism o Occurs either because chemical is taken up faster than it can be used, OR chemical cannot be broken down for use by organism (metabolized) Not a concern if the accumulated compound is NOT harmful. Compounds that ARE harmful to health can accumulate in living tissues Higher up you go on food chain, more accumulation in organism o Methylmercury: waste incinerator or coal combustion smokestacks without scrubbers release methylmercury into atmosphere o DDT: used after WW2 for insect control- eliminated malaria in US Ramifications: eggshell thinning lead to listing birds of prey species on the Endangered Species list Julia Delaluz Christa Partain Biology 120 Week 11 Notes 4/25-4/29 Banned it, sold it to other countries Rachel Carson’s Impact Wrote Silent Spring- 1962 Inspired widespread public conerns with pesticides and pollution of the environment Facilitated ban of DDT o Rise of EPA o US Environmental Protection Agency, proposed by President Richard Nixon, began operation in 1970 because of political pressure o Charged with protecting human health and the environment o Monitors: air, water, land, endangered species, and hazardous waste Acid Rain: o cause- sulfur dioxide o Gases released into atmosphere, carried by wind, dissolve in rainwater to form acid rain o Kills plant life, pollutes rivers and streams, erodes, PH rises in water Smog: smoke + fog o VOCS- motor vehicles, Volatile Organic Compounds o Nitrogen oxide- motor vehicles, power plants, industrial stuff o Both produce ground level ozone, fine particulates (smog) o Causes major health problems with lungs/breathing etc. Ozone: o Ground level is a pollutant o But in upper atmosphere, ozone is protective, filtering UV light from reaching Earth’s surface o CFCs: Chlorofluorocarbons- thinning ozone layer Conservation Biology Studying the planet in order to protect biodiversity Extrinsic value: value for humanity Intrinsic value: value in and of itself Endangered Species: o Habitat destruction o Invasive species o Pollution o Harvesting o Disease Julia Delaluz Christa Partain Biology 120 Week 11 Notes 4/25-4/29 o Global warming (climate change)