New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Psychology Week 13 Notes

by: Meagan

Psychology Week 13 Notes Psych 2010

Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > Psych 2010 > Psychology Week 13 Notes

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what will be on exam 4.
Introduction to Psychology
Aimee A Callender
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


Reviews for Psychology Week 13 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/30/16
Psychological Disorders: Anxiety, Mood, and Substance Use  Mood Disorders o Major Depressive Disorder  Characterized by severe negative moods or lack of interest normally pleasurable activities  Depression is the leading risk factor for suicide  Ex: change in sleep or appetite, not going to work o Persistent Depressive Disorder  Not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depressive disorder, sometimes called dysthymia  Symptoms persist for at least 2 years  Lasts 2 – 20 or more years  Ex: Eeyore from Winne the Pooh o Biological Components  Studies of identical twins, of families and adoptions support the notion depression has genetic component  Concordance rates b/t identical twins are generally 2 -3 times higher than rates between fraternal twins  May involve deficiency of one or more monoamines  SSRI has effect on the brain  Certain neural structures may be involved in mood disorders  Certain areas in brain are damaged  Biological rhythms  Sleep o Cognitive-Behavioral components  Negative life events  Interpersonal relationships  Cyclical  Learned helplessness  No control in lives or changing state  Seligman’s Apparatus o Bipolar Disorders  Characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania  Mania = high elevated feeling  Bipolar II  hypomania  Not as high mania and mood fluctuates more rapidly  Causes  Family history or bipolar disorder is strongest and most consistent risk factor o High concordance between twins and families  Brain structure abnormalities  Little less understood o Review  Major depressive disorder involves lack of interest in pleasurable activities.  Persistent depressive disorder symptoms persist for at least 2 years.  Depressive symptoms of Bipolar II are more severe than Bipolar I = false  Substance Use Disorders o Substance  Any natural or synthesized product with psychoactive effects  Changes perceptions, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors o Use: Ingestion of psychoactive drugs or substances in moderate amounts that do not interfere with functioning  It is not a disorder  Use does not = abuse o Maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress o Intoxication o Withdrawal o Substance induced mental disorders o 4 major categories of substances  Sedatives/anti-anxiety  Stimulants  Opiates  Hallucinogens o Drug Use  Underreported and difficult to study  Ex: illegal, fear of information collected, ethical  Biological causal factors  There are genetic influences but precise relationships are not well understood o Most children don’t develop substance use disorders  Gene-environment interaction o Learning plays important role  Addiction as learned behavior  Positive and negative reinforcement  Positive expectancies facilitate dependence  Substances as highly preferred reinforcers  More alternative reinforcers = less consumption  Sparse alternative reinforcers = more consumption  Psychosocial Casual Factors  Parenting o Lack of stable family relationships and parental guidance o Lack of monitoring o Chaotic environments o Family involvement and parental modeling can serve as a protective factor even when other risk factors are present  Review  What is the most commonly used substance among adults = alcohol  Mental disorders can be substances induced = true Disorders and Treatment  Summary of anxiety disorders o Generalized anxiety  Constant worry  Hypervigilance  6%  Women more than men o Specific phobia  Exaggerated fear  Animals, situation, blood, etc.  12% o Social anxiety  Negative evaluation from others  12%  Develops early around 13 years old o Panic disorder  Panic attacks and fear of future attacks  3%  Women 2X more than men  Agoraphobia  Summary of mood disorders o Major depressive disorder (most severe)  Depressed mood for 2 weeks  6-7% per year  16% lifetime occurrence o Dysthymia (Persistent depressive disorder)  Persistent low mood for 2 years o Bipolar I  Depression and mania  Characterized by mania  Late adolescence/early adulthood o Bipolar II  Hypomanic episodes (cyclothymia)  1 depressive episode  debilitating  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) o Personality disorder o Used to be grouped with anxiety now grouped with hoarding, hair pulling and skin pulling o Obsession  Unwanted, persistent thought or image that cannot be suppressed  Disease, disfigurement, death (constant fears) o Compulsion  Irresistible impulse to perform an act repeatedly  Washing, counting, checking  > 1 hour a day (usually 6-7 hours)  1-2% of population diagnosed in lifetime  Aware of irrational thoughts/behaviors o Causes  Genetics  Conditioning  Learn to fear/obsess over an object  Smaller caudate nucleus, increased activity o Treatment  History of Treatment  Mental institutions o Severe psychological disorders  Asylums o Dorothea Dix (1850s)  Moral-treatment movement  Not very effective  Deinstitutionalization (1950s-1960s) o Coincided with advent of drugs o Put back into community o Community-based mental health  Assertive Community Treatment o Team of providers care for mentally ill  Current approaches to Treatment  Biological o Drugs  Introduced in 1950s  Allowed patients to be releases from institutions  Problems: side effects and addiction  Antianxiety  Risk for abuse/dependence  Antidepressants  SSRI  MAOI – prevent breakdown of neurotransmitters  Often used in combination with psychotherapy  Placebo Effects  An improve with just a placebo  Spontaneous remission o Improvement without treatment  Efficacy of Drugs  74 studies of antidepressants (12,564 patients o FDA  ADs work 40-50% of the time  As severity of depression increases, effectiveness of ADs increase  Therapy more effective at preventing relapses  Therapy effective with moderate and severe depression  Most effective when ADs paired with therapy o Psychosurgery  ECT – Electroconvulsive Therapy  Phototherapy  Exposure to bright light  Seasonal affective disorder  Deep brain stimulation  Treatment of Anxiety Disorders o Antianxiety Drugs  Relieve tension, apprehension, nervousness  Benzodiazepines (Valium and Xanax)  GABA receptors  Inhibitory neurotransmitter (slows down the brain)  Risk for abuse and dependence  Treatment of Mood disorders o Antidepressants  Tricyclics, MAOIs  SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor)  Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil o Mood Stabilizers  Lithium (prevents future manic/depressive episodes)  Valproate  Behavior Therapy o Restrain maladaptive behaviors o Classical conditioning techniques o Aversion conditioning (aversion therapy)  Pair behavior with averse stimulus (positive punishment)  Short term solution o Contingency management  Inpatient settings (group home, hospital)  Based on operant conditioning  Token economies  Reinforcing the desired behavior  Used with anything not just disorders  Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders o Systematic desensitization  Reduce phobia through conditioning  Anxiety Hierarchy  Things that scare most to least on scale  Relaxation techniques  Worth through hierarchy using relaxation  Psychotherapy o Theory based on systematic approach to aid people with mental disorders  Use psychological means, not biological  Most are eclectic  Use combination of approaches  Rapport with therapist is important  Psychodynamic o Based on Freud’s theory  Explore childhood to gain insight into current problems o Mental conflicts o Behavior gives clues to underlying conflicts  Goal is insight into conflicts o Methods  Free association  Have the patient keeps talking and when they stop = problem  Dreams  Interpret manifest content to determine latent content  Manifest o What the dream is actually about  Latent o Underlying meaning of the dream  Interpretation  Psychologist has to figure out rather than the patient o People don’t like to talk about certain things = difficult  Resistance  Blocks in response therapy  Indicate anxiety/sensitive issues  Ex: stop talking during therapy or quit going to therapy  Transference  Develop strong feelings (positive or negative) for therapist that they have for someone else o This approach takes a long time (years) o Modern-Day Psychodynamic Theory  Interpersonal Psychotherapy (ITP)  Goal is improving current relationships  Grief, conflicts with significant other, life changes, interpersonal skills  Transference and insight still important  Humanistic o Person-centered therapy  Goal is to increase self-awareness and acceptance  Allow client to take the lead (client rather than patient because the person is not sick: more positive look)  Nondirective Therapy  Therapist just repeats back. Don’t interpret  Reflect client’s feelings  Cognitive Therapy o Distorted thought are cause of disorders o Cognitive restructuring  Change biased or irrational thoughts o Depression  Errors in thinking (Beck’s theory) o Helplessness Theory  Attributions for failures  Internal  My fault bad things happen  Stable  Happens all the time  Global  Will apply to everything  Cognitive Behavioral Therapy o Blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies o Problem focused  Undertaken for specific problem/issue o Action oriented  Therapist tries to assist client in selecting specific strategies to help address problems o Working with person for of attack o Most common treatment approach o Very effective for anxiety and mood disorders


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.