Psychology Week 13 Notes
Psychology Week 13 Notes Psych 2010
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Psychological Disorders: Anxiety, Mood, and Substance Use Mood Disorders o Major Depressive Disorder Characterized by severe negative moods or lack of interest normally pleasurable activities Depression is the leading risk factor for suicide Ex: change in sleep or appetite, not going to work o Persistent Depressive Disorder Not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depressive disorder, sometimes called dysthymia Symptoms persist for at least 2 years Lasts 2 – 20 or more years Ex: Eeyore from Winne the Pooh o Biological Components Studies of identical twins, of families and adoptions support the notion depression has genetic component Concordance rates b/t identical twins are generally 2 -3 times higher than rates between fraternal twins May involve deficiency of one or more monoamines SSRI has effect on the brain Certain neural structures may be involved in mood disorders Certain areas in brain are damaged Biological rhythms Sleep o Cognitive-Behavioral components Negative life events Interpersonal relationships Cyclical Learned helplessness No control in lives or changing state Seligman’s Apparatus o Bipolar Disorders Characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania Mania = high elevated feeling Bipolar II hypomania Not as high mania and mood fluctuates more rapidly Causes Family history or bipolar disorder is strongest and most consistent risk factor o High concordance between twins and families Brain structure abnormalities Little less understood o Review Major depressive disorder involves lack of interest in pleasurable activities. Persistent depressive disorder symptoms persist for at least 2 years. Depressive symptoms of Bipolar II are more severe than Bipolar I = false Substance Use Disorders o Substance Any natural or synthesized product with psychoactive effects Changes perceptions, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors o Use: Ingestion of psychoactive drugs or substances in moderate amounts that do not interfere with functioning It is not a disorder Use does not = abuse o Maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress o Intoxication o Withdrawal o Substance induced mental disorders o 4 major categories of substances Sedatives/anti-anxiety Stimulants Opiates Hallucinogens o Drug Use Underreported and difficult to study Ex: illegal, fear of information collected, ethical Biological causal factors There are genetic influences but precise relationships are not well understood o Most children don’t develop substance use disorders Gene-environment interaction o Learning plays important role Addiction as learned behavior Positive and negative reinforcement Positive expectancies facilitate dependence Substances as highly preferred reinforcers More alternative reinforcers = less consumption Sparse alternative reinforcers = more consumption Psychosocial Casual Factors Parenting o Lack of stable family relationships and parental guidance o Lack of monitoring o Chaotic environments o Family involvement and parental modeling can serve as a protective factor even when other risk factors are present Review What is the most commonly used substance among adults = alcohol Mental disorders can be substances induced = true Disorders and Treatment Summary of anxiety disorders o Generalized anxiety Constant worry Hypervigilance 6% Women more than men o Specific phobia Exaggerated fear Animals, situation, blood, etc. 12% o Social anxiety Negative evaluation from others 12% Develops early around 13 years old o Panic disorder Panic attacks and fear of future attacks 3% Women 2X more than men Agoraphobia Summary of mood disorders o Major depressive disorder (most severe) Depressed mood for 2 weeks 6-7% per year 16% lifetime occurrence o Dysthymia (Persistent depressive disorder) Persistent low mood for 2 years o Bipolar I Depression and mania Characterized by mania Late adolescence/early adulthood o Bipolar II Hypomanic episodes (cyclothymia) 1 depressive episode debilitating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) o Personality disorder o Used to be grouped with anxiety now grouped with hoarding, hair pulling and skin pulling o Obsession Unwanted, persistent thought or image that cannot be suppressed Disease, disfigurement, death (constant fears) o Compulsion Irresistible impulse to perform an act repeatedly Washing, counting, checking > 1 hour a day (usually 6-7 hours) 1-2% of population diagnosed in lifetime Aware of irrational thoughts/behaviors o Causes Genetics Conditioning Learn to fear/obsess over an object Smaller caudate nucleus, increased activity o Treatment History of Treatment Mental institutions o Severe psychological disorders Asylums o Dorothea Dix (1850s) Moral-treatment movement Not very effective Deinstitutionalization (1950s-1960s) o Coincided with advent of drugs o Put back into community o Community-based mental health Assertive Community Treatment o Team of providers care for mentally ill Current approaches to Treatment Biological o Drugs Introduced in 1950s Allowed patients to be releases from institutions Problems: side effects and addiction Antianxiety Risk for abuse/dependence Antidepressants SSRI MAOI – prevent breakdown of neurotransmitters Often used in combination with psychotherapy Placebo Effects An improve with just a placebo Spontaneous remission o Improvement without treatment Efficacy of Drugs 74 studies of antidepressants (12,564 patients o FDA ADs work 40-50% of the time As severity of depression increases, effectiveness of ADs increase Therapy more effective at preventing relapses Therapy effective with moderate and severe depression Most effective when ADs paired with therapy o Psychosurgery ECT – Electroconvulsive Therapy Phototherapy Exposure to bright light Seasonal affective disorder Deep brain stimulation Treatment of Anxiety Disorders o Antianxiety Drugs Relieve tension, apprehension, nervousness Benzodiazepines (Valium and Xanax) GABA receptors Inhibitory neurotransmitter (slows down the brain) Risk for abuse and dependence Treatment of Mood disorders o Antidepressants Tricyclics, MAOIs SSRI (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor) Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil o Mood Stabilizers Lithium (prevents future manic/depressive episodes) Valproate Behavior Therapy o Restrain maladaptive behaviors o Classical conditioning techniques o Aversion conditioning (aversion therapy) Pair behavior with averse stimulus (positive punishment) Short term solution o Contingency management Inpatient settings (group home, hospital) Based on operant conditioning Token economies Reinforcing the desired behavior Used with anything not just disorders Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders o Systematic desensitization Reduce phobia through conditioning Anxiety Hierarchy Things that scare most to least on scale Relaxation techniques Worth through hierarchy using relaxation Psychotherapy o Theory based on systematic approach to aid people with mental disorders Use psychological means, not biological Most are eclectic Use combination of approaches Rapport with therapist is important Psychodynamic o Based on Freud’s theory Explore childhood to gain insight into current problems o Mental conflicts o Behavior gives clues to underlying conflicts Goal is insight into conflicts o Methods Free association Have the patient keeps talking and when they stop = problem Dreams Interpret manifest content to determine latent content Manifest o What the dream is actually about Latent o Underlying meaning of the dream Interpretation Psychologist has to figure out rather than the patient o People don’t like to talk about certain things = difficult Resistance Blocks in response therapy Indicate anxiety/sensitive issues Ex: stop talking during therapy or quit going to therapy Transference Develop strong feelings (positive or negative) for therapist that they have for someone else o This approach takes a long time (years) o Modern-Day Psychodynamic Theory Interpersonal Psychotherapy (ITP) Goal is improving current relationships Grief, conflicts with significant other, life changes, interpersonal skills Transference and insight still important Humanistic o Person-centered therapy Goal is to increase self-awareness and acceptance Allow client to take the lead (client rather than patient because the person is not sick: more positive look) Nondirective Therapy Therapist just repeats back. Don’t interpret Reflect client’s feelings Cognitive Therapy o Distorted thought are cause of disorders o Cognitive restructuring Change biased or irrational thoughts o Depression Errors in thinking (Beck’s theory) o Helplessness Theory Attributions for failures Internal My fault bad things happen Stable Happens all the time Global Will apply to everything Cognitive Behavioral Therapy o Blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies o Problem focused Undertaken for specific problem/issue o Action oriented Therapist tries to assist client in selecting specific strategies to help address problems o Working with person for of attack o Most common treatment approach o Very effective for anxiety and mood disorders
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