History in Our Lifetimes: the 90’s and 00’s
History in Our Lifetimes: the 90’s and 00’s HIST 2112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Rohrer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
History in Our Lifetimes: the 90’s and 00’s • Post-Cold War America o 1991: SU completely collapses o no more threat of nuclear warfare o SU breaks up into 15 separate nations § Russian Federation is the largest o No longer a bipolar world o Arabs and Israelis go into negotiation o Politicians and every day Americans figure military budget that has been so high for so long would now free up billions of dollars § Scientific research, healthcare, etc. § More of a dream than reality – domestic terrorism o Greater emphasis on domestic issues § Much less optimistic § Greatest recession since the 70’s § Economy has been weakening due to restrictive monetary policies • Loss of consumer and business confidence due to Oil Shock of 1991 o 1992 Presidential Election: Bill Clinton § first democratic president since Jimmy Carter § Highly effective communicator § Convinced enough Americans that domestic issues were more important than foreign and he could handle it § Easily beat Bush • Clinton tries and succeeds; assumed position of pragmatic centrist with out alienating any group § “New Democrat” • Clinton and party are more moderate/centrist than democrats before § Conservative revolution • Democratic party not nearly as liberal as it had been – moving more toward republican party § Re-elected in 1996 over Bob Doll • 97-2001: upholds moderate and centrist ideology • fiscal discipline • investment in education and healthcare o nationalized medicine • investment in technology • opened foreign markets and free trade o unhampered trade by government • American Economic Prosperity o Economy evolves and adapts o Economy transforms into a service based and high technological economy – less manufacturing as it had been o Recession when Clinton was elected in 1992 § 1992: 7.4% unemployment § 1996: 5.4% unemployment § 2000: 3.9% unemployment § cannot believe big business is limited § what was fueling this booming period? • Personal computer (PC) – late 70’s but real effects come about in mid-late 90’s § Business offices and homes – more powerful than imaginable § Helps business expand • Internet – came from department of defense o Shopping opportunity o Email (personal and professional) • Mobile phone o New industry o Instant communication o Data manipulation • Multi-billion dollar industries = new middle class population • Increased Terrorism Directed at US o Muslim extremists o American soil o Airplanes, cruise ships, American embassies o 1993 World Trade Center Bombing § truck bomb in underground parking garage below one of the twin towers § 7 deaths, 1000 injured § failed to bring down building with 10’s of thousands of workers inside o 9/11 § Bush presidency changed extremely § Most devastating foreign attack ever § > deaths than Pearl Harbor § hijacked 4 passenger airplanes • 2 are suicide vehicles to destroy work trade center towers • 1 crashed into the Pentagon (defense headquarters) • 1 meant for capital that crashed in PA country side § death total = about 3000 § economic cost: destruction of buildings and financial market shut down for a few days § How did the US change/respond? • Alcada operation o Militant Suni-Muslim organization led by Osama Bin Laden • Launch military against Osama Bin Laden o Allies help o Pakistan o Russian federation • Oust government in Afghanistan in two months o Leaders escaped to remote areas • Bush administration pass USA Patriot Act on October 26, 2001 o Designed to fight domestic terrorism o Considerably broadened search, seizure and detention of powers of federal government o Opponents of act argue that it was a violation of constitutional rights o Supporters say a country at war needed to protect itself o Recently renewed by government • Bush administration established the department of homeland security (2002) o To coordinate the fight against future domestic terror attacks • State of the Union Address (Bush) o “Axis of Evil”” North Korea, Iran, Iraq § mostly Iraq – most immediately addressed • Thought Iraq had large stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons (nuclear capability) o push for UN resolution with inspectors of Iraq weapons o Resolution 1441: allow them to inspect for illegal weapons § Iraq agrees but fails to account for weapons of mass destruction § US intervenes with military • Spring of 2003: Iraq War o American and British troops invade Bagdad, Iraq (capital) th and it falls by Apthl 9 . o War ends April 15 o War lasted only a few weeks § Taking it over was easy, administering it is much more difficult § Provisional government • Not clear if liberal democratic government could be held in Iraq • Is it our right to force our democracy all over the world? o Not everyone wants to be like us • Continuing Cultural and Social Divides o Race, class and gender divides o Hurrican Katrina
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