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Gen Bio 1060 Week 16 Lecture Notes

by: Margaret Notetaker

Gen Bio 1060 Week 16 Lecture Notes Bio 1060

Marketplace > Saint Louis University > Biology > Bio 1060 > Gen Bio 1060 Week 16 Lecture Notes
Margaret Notetaker

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These are the lecture notes from the 16th week of class, but the third week of Unit 4: Ecology.
General Biology II
Dr. Thole
Class Notes
Biology, Ecology
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Notetaker on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1060 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Thole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Saint Louis University.


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Date Created: 04/30/16
Margaret  S   General  Biology  II  (Bio  1060)  Week  3  Lecture  Notes   Unit  4:  Ecology     4-­‐25-­‐16     Marine  Ecosystems   • Marine  ecosystems,  especially  the  open  ocean,  are  the  majority  (over  70%)  of   our  planet   • The  most  diversity  surrounds  the  equator,  because  it  has  the  most  sunlight,   the  highest  temperature,  and  the  most  precipitation,  which  leads  to  a  higher   number  of  primary  producers,  which  causes  more  support  for  upper   consumers   o Temperature  and  precipitation  have  less  effect  on  the  ocean   • Biogeochemical  cycles:  components  of  these  cycles  are  essential  to  life;  they   move  in  a  series  of  physical,  chemical,  and  biological  processes   • Fixing  is  the  conversion  of  gaseous  forms  to  usable  forms  of  nutrients     Water  Cycle   • Evaporation:  water  moves  into  the  air   • Condensation/Precipitation:  rainfall;  water  moves  to  earth   • Flow  of  water  is  always  from  rivers  to  oceans   •     Carbon  Cycle   • Respiration:  giving  off  carbon  (think  cellular  respiration)   • Photosynthesis:  absorbing  carbon   • Pools/fluxes:  pools  are  sources,  fluxes  are  the  methods  of  movement  of   carbon   • Pools:   o Ocean  (CO3-­‐)   o Volcanoes   o Soil  (when  things  decompose)/Rocks   o Atmosphere   o Living  organisms   o Fossil  fuels   • Fluxes:   o Decomposition  (cellular  respiration  of  fungi)   o Respiration/Photosynthesis  (short-­‐term  fluxes)   o Weathering  of  rocks   o Combustion   o Consumption   • Terrestrial  Carbon  Cycle:   •   • Aquatic  Carbon  Cycle:   •       4-­‐27-­‐16     Human  Contributions  to  CO2   • Atmospheric  CO2  levels  have  been  steadily  increasing  over  the  last  50  years   due  to  burning  of  fossil  fuels   • CO2  levels  fluctuate  seasonally;  in  spring/early  summer  CO2  levels  increase,   during  most  of  summer  plants  are  alive  and  doing  photosynthesis  so  it   decreases   • Drilling:  pulling  cylinders  of  ice  from  glaciers  to  measure  CO2  levels   historically   • Around  1890  ice  core  CO2  levels  increase  (Industrial  Revolution)   • CO2  sources  and  sinks:  we  are  able  to  track  carbon  isotopes  to  prove  that  we   are  the  cause  of  the  increase  in  CO2  levels   • Physical  and  biological  processes  affect  carbon  pools:  pools  are  ocean,   atmosphere,  and  rocks/soil  while  fluxes  are  respiration  and  photosynthesis   • Geological  processes  are  fluxes  as  well;  weathering  of  rocks,  mollusks   building  CaCO3  shells,  and  volcanoes   • Atmospheric  CO2  for  the  past  400,000  years:   o Graphs  of  CO2  levels  and  temperatures  match;  this  is  because  CO2  is  a   greenhouse  gas:  it  traps  solar  energy  within  earth’s  atmosphere   o During  glacial  periods,  CO2  levels  and  temperatures  are  low,  during   interglacial  periods,  CO2  levels  and  temperatures  are  high   • Modeling  allows  for  estimation  of  even  earlier  CO2  levels   • Carbon  cycles  through  the  food  webs;  higher  consumers  obtain  their  carbon   by  consuming  the  smaller  consumers/producers;  decomposers  release  it   back  into  the  air   • In  addition  to  carbon,  hydrogen,  oxygen,  and  nitrogen,  phosphorus  and  sulfur   are  important  cyclers  because  they  also  help  make  up  macromolecules  like   DNA  and  proteins     Nitrogen  Cycle   • Largest  (reservoir)  pool:  atmospheric  N2  gas   • Smaller,  active  pool:  ammonia  (NH3)  and  nitrate  (NO2-­‐)   • Major  flux:  nitrogen  moves  from  the  large  reservoir  pool  to  the  small  active   pool  via  nitrogen  fixation   o Nitrogen-­‐fixing  bacteria/lightning  can  help  this  process   o Diagram  of  the  nitrogen  cycle:   o   o Nitrogen  is  in  urea,  which  is  excreted  in  the  form  of  urine  by  living   animals   o The  only  way  plants  can  utilize  nitrogen  is  after  it  is  fixed  by  bacteria   and  archaea  in  the  nodules  of  legumes  among  other  places  that  fix   nitrogen   o For  the  test,  you  only  need  to  know  about  anammox,  which  is  the   conversion  of  nitrite  and  ammonium  into  N2  gas   o Crop  rotation:  farmers  will  switch  off  growing  corn  and  soy  beans   yearly  because  corn  uses  nitrogen  and  soy  bean  nodules  release   nitrogen     Sulfur/Phosphorous  Cycles   • The  Sulfur  Cycle   •   o Sulfur  has  recently  become  more  limiting  to  crops  because  clean  air   laws  have  been  passed;  therefore,  less  crops  can  be  grown  in  the   presence  of  less  sulfur   • Phosphorous  Cycle:   •       4-­‐29-­‐16     More  About  Biogeochemical  Cycles   • All  nutrients  rely  on  microbes  for  their  cycling     Modern  Era   • The  modern  era  is  known  as  Anthropocene;  there  are  so  many  humans  that   there  is  not  enough  energy/land  to  sustain  them   • Ecological  footprint:  amount  of  land  that  is  required  to  support  1  person  in  a   specific  country   • To  decrease  your  ecological  footprint,  eat  local   • Human  activity  has  caused  CO2  levels  to  reach  their  highest  ever   • Increased  temperatures  from  the  CO2  level  increase  causes  symbionts   (microbes)  to  leave  algae  that  they  live  in;  this  is  called  ocean  acidification   o 50%  of  the  Great  Barrier  Reef  is  now  dead  or  dying,  and  93%  of  it  is   bleached  (damaged)   o A  new  huge  coral  reef  has  been  found  at  the  mouth  of  the  Amazon  that   is  resisting  ocean  acidification  better  than  any  others   • Butterflies  have  shifted  their  range  north,  migrating  birds  have  begun   arriving  earlier,  and  some  animals  have  started  breeding  earlier  while  some   plants  have  started  blooming  earlier  due  to  these  changes   • To  curb  CO2  emissions:   o Develop  renewable  energy  sources   o Plant  more  trees   o Change  transportation     Humans  and  the  Nitrogen  Cycle   • Production  of  chemical  fertilizer:  we  get  our  nitrogen  from  plants,  which  get   it  from  fixation  in  the  soil,  so  the  fertilizer  is  used  to  make  more  plants   • We  are  producing  too  much  nitrogen  in  the  fertilizer   • A  lot  of  the  excess  nitrogen  gets  into  the  rivers  and  oceans  due  to  water   runoff;  in  the  coastlines,  this  excess  nitrogen  causes  an  area  of  rapid  growth   of  algae  and  bacteria  that  consume  O2  (known  as  dead  zone)  that   immediately  surrounds  coastlines   • This  above  problem  is  known  as  Eutrophication:  too  much  nitrogen  means   too  many  protists  and  less  biodiversity   • GMOs  are  anything  with  a  foreign  piece  of  DNA  incorporated  into  their   sequence       Review  Questions   1. If  plants  consume  CO 2 during  photosynthesis,  why  hasn’t  all  the  atmospheric   CO 2  been  used  up?     a. Photosynthesis  also  produces  CO2  as  a  product.   b. Respiration  produces  CO2  as  a  product.   c. Both  photosynthesis  and  respiration  produce  CO  as  p2oducts.   d. Plants  actually  don’t  use  CO 2 during  photosynthesis;  they  use  O . 2  2. Which  of  the  below  statements  is  true  regarding  the  movement  of  carbon   between  organisms  in  a  food  web  and  the  transfer  of  energy  between   organisms  in  different  trophic  levels?   a. Both  energy  and  carbon  can  be  continuously  cycled.   b. Neither  energy  nor  carbon  can  be  continuously  cycled.   c. Energy  can  be  continuously  cycled,  but  carbon  cannot.   d. Carbon  can  be  continuously  cycled,  but  energy  cannot.   3. Which  of  the  following  is  the  biggest  reason  CO2  levels  have  increased?   a. Respiration   b. Photosynthesis   c. Deforestation   d. The  weathering  of  rocks   e. Burning  of  fossil  fuels   4. Which  of  the  following  could  not  contribute  to  increasing  CO2  levels?   a. Respiration   b. Photosynthesis   c. Deforestation   d. Weathering  of  rocks   e. Burning  of  fossil  fuels   5. If  a  forester  treats  his  soil  with  a  broad-­‐spectrum  fungicide,  how  would  this   affect  the  rate  of 2 CO  released  from  the  system?   a. CO  2eleased  from  the  system  will  remain  the  same  because  fungi  only   decompose  dead  organisms  and  the  forest  is  alive.   b. CO  released  from  the  system  will  decrease  because  this  would   2 decrease  the  number  of  decomposers  in  the  system.   c. CO  2eleased  from  the  system  will  increase  because  the  fungi  will  be   decomposed  by  something  else.     6. Is  the  Nitrogen  cycle  different  in  marine  than  in  terrestrial  biomes?   a. Yes,  one  is  in  water  and  one  is  on  land   b. Yes,  there  are  different  organisms  involved   c. No,  nitrogen  cycles  between  and  within  all  biomes   d. No,  all  nitrogen  ultimately  comes  from  the  atmosphere       Answers:   1. B   2. D   3. E   4. B   5. B   6. D:  remember,  there  is  only  1  reservoir  


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