Gen Bio 1060 Week 16 Lecture Notes
Gen Bio 1060 Week 16 Lecture Notes Bio 1060
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Notetaker on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1060 at Saint Louis University taught by Dr. Thole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Saint Louis University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Margaret S General Biology II (Bio 1060) Week 3 Lecture Notes Unit 4: Ecology 4-‐25-‐16 Marine Ecosystems • Marine ecosystems, especially the open ocean, are the majority (over 70%) of our planet • The most diversity surrounds the equator, because it has the most sunlight, the highest temperature, and the most precipitation, which leads to a higher number of primary producers, which causes more support for upper consumers o Temperature and precipitation have less effect on the ocean • Biogeochemical cycles: components of these cycles are essential to life; they move in a series of physical, chemical, and biological processes • Fixing is the conversion of gaseous forms to usable forms of nutrients Water Cycle • Evaporation: water moves into the air • Condensation/Precipitation: rainfall; water moves to earth • Flow of water is always from rivers to oceans • Carbon Cycle • Respiration: giving off carbon (think cellular respiration) • Photosynthesis: absorbing carbon • Pools/fluxes: pools are sources, fluxes are the methods of movement of carbon • Pools: o Ocean (CO3-‐) o Volcanoes o Soil (when things decompose)/Rocks o Atmosphere o Living organisms o Fossil fuels • Fluxes: o Decomposition (cellular respiration of fungi) o Respiration/Photosynthesis (short-‐term fluxes) o Weathering of rocks o Combustion o Consumption • Terrestrial Carbon Cycle: • • Aquatic Carbon Cycle: • 4-‐27-‐16 Human Contributions to CO2 • Atmospheric CO2 levels have been steadily increasing over the last 50 years due to burning of fossil fuels • CO2 levels fluctuate seasonally; in spring/early summer CO2 levels increase, during most of summer plants are alive and doing photosynthesis so it decreases • Drilling: pulling cylinders of ice from glaciers to measure CO2 levels historically • Around 1890 ice core CO2 levels increase (Industrial Revolution) • CO2 sources and sinks: we are able to track carbon isotopes to prove that we are the cause of the increase in CO2 levels • Physical and biological processes affect carbon pools: pools are ocean, atmosphere, and rocks/soil while fluxes are respiration and photosynthesis • Geological processes are fluxes as well; weathering of rocks, mollusks building CaCO3 shells, and volcanoes • Atmospheric CO2 for the past 400,000 years: o Graphs of CO2 levels and temperatures match; this is because CO2 is a greenhouse gas: it traps solar energy within earth’s atmosphere o During glacial periods, CO2 levels and temperatures are low, during interglacial periods, CO2 levels and temperatures are high • Modeling allows for estimation of even earlier CO2 levels • Carbon cycles through the food webs; higher consumers obtain their carbon by consuming the smaller consumers/producers; decomposers release it back into the air • In addition to carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur are important cyclers because they also help make up macromolecules like DNA and proteins Nitrogen Cycle • Largest (reservoir) pool: atmospheric N2 gas • Smaller, active pool: ammonia (NH3) and nitrate (NO2-‐) • Major flux: nitrogen moves from the large reservoir pool to the small active pool via nitrogen fixation o Nitrogen-‐fixing bacteria/lightning can help this process o Diagram of the nitrogen cycle: o o Nitrogen is in urea, which is excreted in the form of urine by living animals o The only way plants can utilize nitrogen is after it is fixed by bacteria and archaea in the nodules of legumes among other places that fix nitrogen o For the test, you only need to know about anammox, which is the conversion of nitrite and ammonium into N2 gas o Crop rotation: farmers will switch off growing corn and soy beans yearly because corn uses nitrogen and soy bean nodules release nitrogen Sulfur/Phosphorous Cycles • The Sulfur Cycle • o Sulfur has recently become more limiting to crops because clean air laws have been passed; therefore, less crops can be grown in the presence of less sulfur • Phosphorous Cycle: • 4-‐29-‐16 More About Biogeochemical Cycles • All nutrients rely on microbes for their cycling Modern Era • The modern era is known as Anthropocene; there are so many humans that there is not enough energy/land to sustain them • Ecological footprint: amount of land that is required to support 1 person in a specific country • To decrease your ecological footprint, eat local • Human activity has caused CO2 levels to reach their highest ever • Increased temperatures from the CO2 level increase causes symbionts (microbes) to leave algae that they live in; this is called ocean acidification o 50% of the Great Barrier Reef is now dead or dying, and 93% of it is bleached (damaged) o A new huge coral reef has been found at the mouth of the Amazon that is resisting ocean acidification better than any others • Butterflies have shifted their range north, migrating birds have begun arriving earlier, and some animals have started breeding earlier while some plants have started blooming earlier due to these changes • To curb CO2 emissions: o Develop renewable energy sources o Plant more trees o Change transportation Humans and the Nitrogen Cycle • Production of chemical fertilizer: we get our nitrogen from plants, which get it from fixation in the soil, so the fertilizer is used to make more plants • We are producing too much nitrogen in the fertilizer • A lot of the excess nitrogen gets into the rivers and oceans due to water runoff; in the coastlines, this excess nitrogen causes an area of rapid growth of algae and bacteria that consume O2 (known as dead zone) that immediately surrounds coastlines • This above problem is known as Eutrophication: too much nitrogen means too many protists and less biodiversity • GMOs are anything with a foreign piece of DNA incorporated into their sequence Review Questions 1. If plants consume CO 2 during photosynthesis, why hasn’t all the atmospheric CO 2 been used up? a. Photosynthesis also produces CO2 as a product. b. Respiration produces CO2 as a product. c. Both photosynthesis and respiration produce CO as p2oducts. d. Plants actually don’t use CO 2 during photosynthesis; they use O . 2 2. Which of the below statements is true regarding the movement of carbon between organisms in a food web and the transfer of energy between organisms in different trophic levels? a. Both energy and carbon can be continuously cycled. b. Neither energy nor carbon can be continuously cycled. c. Energy can be continuously cycled, but carbon cannot. d. Carbon can be continuously cycled, but energy cannot. 3. Which of the following is the biggest reason CO2 levels have increased? a. Respiration b. Photosynthesis c. Deforestation d. The weathering of rocks e. Burning of fossil fuels 4. Which of the following could not contribute to increasing CO2 levels? a. Respiration b. Photosynthesis c. Deforestation d. Weathering of rocks e. Burning of fossil fuels 5. If a forester treats his soil with a broad-‐spectrum fungicide, how would this affect the rate of 2 CO released from the system? a. CO 2eleased from the system will remain the same because fungi only decompose dead organisms and the forest is alive. b. CO released from the system will decrease because this would 2 decrease the number of decomposers in the system. c. CO 2eleased from the system will increase because the fungi will be decomposed by something else. 6. Is the Nitrogen cycle different in marine than in terrestrial biomes? a. Yes, one is in water and one is on land b. Yes, there are different organisms involved c. No, nitrogen cycles between and within all biomes d. No, all nitrogen ultimately comes from the atmosphere Answers: 1. B 2. D 3. E 4. B 5. B 6. D: remember, there is only 1 reservoir
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