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History Week 14 Notes

by: Meagan

History Week 14 Notes HIST 1020

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About this Document

These notes cover what is going to be on exam 4.
World History 2
Tiffany Sippial
Class Notes
history, World History
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/30/16
Revolutionary Subjects Awaken the World  The Somoza Dynasty (1936-1979) o Multiple members serve as president in quick succession  Powerful family o Owned 23% of all land o $400 million assets (1979) o US military aid/year  1950s = $200,000  1960s = $1.8 million  Similar to the Batista government  Corporate and military involvement from the US  Training for the CIA operations in Cuba (Bay of Pigs) was here in Nicaragua  Huge increase in military budget  Revolution in the Making: 1961 – 1972 o Mismanagement of economics, power and money  Huge source of discontentment for the Nicaraguans o Young leaders form movement called the Sandinista movement  Carlos Fonseca, Tomas Borge, and Daniel Ortega all students from the University of Nicaragua  Attempt to topple the Somoza dynasty  Recruit young idealistic people, stage mass rallies, use radio programs (gain mass support)  Gathering weapons and money also  Earthquake! o Managua, 1972 o 10,000 casualties o 80% commercial buildings destroyed o Somoza regime embezzles international aid to rebuild after earthquake  Questions of where else the money is going o Results  Sandinistas capitalize on corruption to garner support of people  Say they are embezzling funds on radio broadcast (actually true)  Repression (1972-1979)  Lash out at people and hurt human rights  Further source of discontentment  High casualties o Too much for US  Withdraw military support  Somoza family goes into exile  Sandinistas in Power: The Second Domino Falls? o 19 July 1979 o Young men ride in on tanks  Like the Cuban revolution o What Sandinistas Inherit  50,000 casualties of war  $1.6 billion national debt  Inflation = 60% o US perspective  Proof that a second domino has fallen  Modeling revolution off of Cuban example o Agrarian Reform Law (1981)  ½ million acres of land expropriated  Hit US corporations so they aren’t happy  Nationalize industry (ex: mining) o National Literacy Campaign (1980)  95,000 volunteers (2,500 Cubans)  Reduces illiteracy rate 50%  23% o New Family Laws (1981)  Day care centers for working mothers  Men + women share household duties  Trying to promote gender equality  Prohibited use of women’s bodies in commercial advertising  Abortion legislation (eventually omitted)  Conflict with Catholicism  Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) o Immediately announces upon taking office: Deplored “Communist Sandinista takeover of Nicaragua” o 1981: Approved CIA-funded operations against Sandinistas = Contra War o 1982: Calls for economic sanctions against Nicaragua  Trying to bleed Them dry o  Contras in Nicaragua: 1981-1990 o 12,000 Nicaraguan troops o Free license to destroy economy and terrorize population  Trying to create fear and distrust in Sandinista government  Internal insurrection  Funded by US o Tactics of Contra troops  Use landmines, kidnapping, rape, murder o 40,000 casualties (by 1990)  Iran-Contra Scandal Explodes (1986-1987) o US Congress calls for cancellation of US aid to Contras due to horrific human rights abuses and rumored drug smuggling  Horrible tactics against unarmed people o Reagan White House (illegally and secretly) sell arms to Iranian government in exchange for release of American hostages  Put in secret bank account under Oliver North  He is Most heavily criticized when the scandal gets out o Proceeds secretly funneled to fund Contras  Sandinista Responses to the Contra War o Direct 62% of national budget toward defense  $ diverted away from new social reform programs o Establish military draft  Greatly reduced popularity of Sandinistas  Long war with many casualties o Aid from Cuba/USSR  Collapse of USSR imminent  No way they can help  Sandinistas on their own  President Violeta Chamorro (1990-1997) o National elections February 1990 o US agrees to demobilize Contras and lift economic sanctions ONLY IF candidate Violeta Chamorro (centrist UNO party) elected  Make a deal with the Nicaraguan people  Middle party that is safe for US government o Exhausted Nicaraguan people elect Chamorro as president  Political and social distress for a while o Contras demobilized + US economic sanctions lifted o Successful destabilization of Sandinista government  End of the Contra War  Sen as victory for the US  Indigenous Uprising in Mexico o 1994-present o Southernmost state of Mexico  Chiapas o An indigenous population has been banding together to start an uprising (organizing for 11 years)  Zapatista Army of National Liberation  Want to protest globalization and the NAFTA  North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) o 1 January 1994 o Between Canada, Mexico and US  Remove obstacles to free market  Encourage foreign investment  Encourage privatization of industry and landholding o Mexican President Carlos Salinas  Sees this as a chance for Mexico to be seen as a 1 world country rather than 3 world  Analyzes Mexican constitution to make sure they are within compliance  Find a problem  Article 27 states that some land in Mexico is set aside (not available for purchase) to be communally operated land o Indigenous people could use the can  He removes this from the constitution to be in compliance with NAFTA – huge deal  Irony of life in the Lacandon Jungle o Most heavily indigenous and poorest state o Provides for Mexican Nation  54% hydroelectric power  13% natural gas  4% oil o Irony  22.3 per 10,000 die of malnutrition  44.6% of all homes lack indoor plumbing  8.5 out of every 10,000 women die in childbirth o Article 27 ripped their access to land  Discontentment  Subcomandante Marcos o Leader of the Zapatista movement o Not indigenous himself  Maybe Rafael Guilen a professor  He speaks perfect Spanish o Mask protects his identity and adds interest/mystery  Guerrillas in the Mist (1983-1994) o Originally organizing to protect indigenous rights o Waiting for the right moment  That moment was New Year’s day with NAFTA  1/3 combatants are women  Esther  Woman that is the commander of an all men unit  Indigenous Uprising in San Cristobal, Chiapas o This is the tourism capital o Huge media attention on Mexico because of NAFTA o Zapatista seize ranches for communal projects  Show that they will take land if it is not reserved o Rich landowners/ranchers are upset o Issued their first declaration on the internet  They are the product of 500 years of struggle  Starting with 1492  They want the basic demands and they won’t stop fighting until they have them  Work, land, housing, food, heath care, education, independence, freedom, democracy, justice, and peace Globalization and Its Discontents: “We are the Product of 500 Years of Struggle”  Wall Comes down on Communism (1961-1989) o Fall of the Soviet Union o End of the Cold War  Fall of Berlin wall o Leads to belief that no other country will attempt a revolution  Zapatista Military Uprising o 1-12 January 1994 o Cultivating ranches and crops o Huge nightmare for Mexican government  Crack down quickly to gain control  Military fight between Zapatistas and Mexican government o Admit to not being ready for Mexican military  Go back to change their rebellion  Shows their flexibility  Zapatista o Agrarian Issues: Land or Death  Call for re-insertion of Article 27 of Mexican constitution to re- secure ejido (communal faming) rights  Seizures of (600+) local ranches to establish farms/ejidos  Role of paramilitary groups (Peace and Justice) o Mexican ranchers funding private armies o Literacy and Education  Direct international aid (NGOs) to build 200+ schools in Chiapas  Establish bilingual (Spanish) education programs o Zapatista Women’s Revolutionary Laws (1994)  Health care and education for women/children  Freedom to choose marriage partner (no dowry system) o Use snail as symbol to show that even though they are slow they will keep moving forward  Women’s revolutionary law (1994) o Women have right to participate in politics of their community and to hold office if elected democratically o Women have right to choose their mate and not be forced into a contract marriage  World’s First “Postmodern” Revolution: Zapatistas in Cyberspace o Women in traditional indigenous dress and ski mask updating information about their revolution on the internet  Gives global audience, creates peace around the movement o Netwar  Internet is a weapon of war  New battleground  The Promise and Peril of Globalization o Zapatistas put focus on is globalization a good or bad thing o Who is it good for/benefit o Important word to think about = globalization


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