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by: M.G

POLS 2312 CHAPTER 11 POLS 2312-001

GPA 3.85

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State and Local Government
Kimberly Harper
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 2312-001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kimberly Harper in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.


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Date Created: 04/30/16
Fiscal Policy  ● In order to reduce debt, revenue must be taken from a service  ● Texas is a low tax, low service state  ● Flat tax  ○ Herman Cain  ■ 9­9­9 plan  ● Less you make, more they take  ○ Regressive structure  ○ Poorer families pay more than wealthier families  ■ Poorer families use more services and should hence pay more  ● More you make, more they take  ○ Progressive tax structure  ○ Wealthier families pay more than poorer families because they make more  ■ Taxing the wealthy will reduce one’s drive to become successful  ● Income to Tax  ○ If you’re making less than $29,000, you are paying 15% (~$4,300) of your  income in taxes  ■ $24,000 for a family of 4 is the poverty line  ○ If you’re making more than $126,000 you pay 4% (~$5,000) of your income in  taxes  ■   ● TX Tax structure  ○ TX tax structure is regressive  Revenue  ● Because people hate the dirty word, “taxes”, the state uses fees for revenue  ● Sales tax is the largest source of revenue for TX  ○ Important because everyone who buys something pays sales tax  ○ State sales tax is 6.25%  ○ 8.25% is the max you can pay  ● TX is supposed to have a balanced budget, but we don’t.   ● General Revenue Fund  ○ Used as TX’s ‘checking’ account  ○ Appropriations by Legislative branch  ■ Governor has some say through line item veto  ● Often used through threats  ● We rank #49­50 for spending on most services  ● Seletive Sales Tax  ○ For certain items, there are extra taxes  ■ Gasoline  ■ Tobacco  ■ Lotto  ■ Bed tax   ● Hotel, motel, B&B  ○ 6% bed tax  ● Enacted because of tourism  ■ Sin tax  ● The tax we put on ‘immoral’ practices to discourage them and to  generate more revenue  ● Cigaars are exempt from the sin tax  ● Franchise tax  ○ Paid by businesses to limit their liability in lawsuits  ● Payroll tax  ● Severance tax  ○ Paid by oil & gas companies to remove resources from the earth  ○ 5­6% of revenue for TX  ● Comptroller  ○ Collects taxes and manages public accounts  ● Gambling  ○ Arlington used to be the gambling hotspot prior to Las Vegas  ○ TX does not allow casino style gambling  ○ TX does allow  ■ The Lotto  ■ Horse racing  ■ Bingo  ● Produced over 30 million in revenue  ● Non­tax revenue  ○ 2/3rds comes from the federal government  ○ More money for us that we don’t take because we don’t want to abide by the  strings attached  ○ Grants in aid  ■ Way states get money from the federal government  ■ Most of this money goes to health and human services, highways, and  education  ○ 71 billion comes in from the federal government  ○ Land revenue  ■ George P. Bush is commissioner of land…  ■ 20 million acres of land to do as we please with  ● Mineral rights  ● Wind farms  ● Farming  ○ Misc  ■ Fees  ■ Permits  ● Building  ● TABC  ● Vehicle  ■ Fines  ● TX Debt  ○ 43 billion in debt  ● Rainy Day Fund  ○ Economic stabilization fund  ○ TX’s savings account  ○ Minimum amount required to keep in the fund is supposed to be 7 billion dollars    Budget  ● Budget was roughly 200.5 billion during the 2014­2015 fiscal year  ● Grants in aid  ○ Money goes to Health and Human Services, Education, and Transportation  ■ Education is 40% of the state’s budget  ● Food desert  ○ Impoverished areas have no grocery stores, which means the people of that  neighborhood eat at convenience stores and consequently, their life expectancy  drops.  Future Demands  ● ¼ Texans are homeless   ○ Costs the county roughly $30,000 per person per year  ● Transportation  ○ 11­12% of the state’s budget  ○ 50% of car accident fatalities are alcohol related  ○ Roads are made for the population of the ‘80s and are way too cramped  ● Public Education  ○ Bullying  ○ Lack of funding  ■ 10% comes from federal government  ■ 40% comes from the state  ■ 50% comes from local property taxes  ○ Leveler  ■ Tries to level the playing field between students to give them all the same  education  ■ Robin Hood Plan  ● Takes funds from wealthier districts and redistributes them to  poorer districts  ○ 60% of TX students are economically disadvantaged  ● Higher Education  ○ Higher tuition due to being deregulated  ○ Reduced services  ○ Affirmative action  ■ Top 10% rule  ● Poverty  ○ 18­20% of Texans live in poverty  ○ Medicaid aids the poor  ○ CHIPS ­ Children’s Health Insurance Program  ○ Causes  ■ Large service industry   ○ ¼ homeless are veterans  ● Elderly  ○ Medicare for elderly  ● Transportation  ○ 3rd largest budget item  ○ 11­12% of state’s budget  ○ We fund about half of what TXDot needs to maintain and build the roads  ■ Because of a lack of funding, most new roads are toll roads  ○ A lot of TX bridges are structurally insufficient, but our reactionary culture will  not fix the problem until something happens  ○ Potholes are a huge problem  ■ Some people draw male anatomy around the potholes to force the city to  fix the problem  ● Public Safety  ○ Recidivism rates are high  ■ TX needs more support programs  ● Homeland Security  ○ 1248 miles of the TX border is shared with Mexico  ○ High­speed very texan boats to combat river crossings  ■ Tunnels  ■ Boats  ○ Natural disaster  ■ Fires  ■ Tornadoes  ■ Earthquakes  ■ Security issues related to looting and aftermath  ● Water  ○ Needed for   ■ Agriculture  ■ Drinking  ■ Washing  ■ Business (such as oil & gas)  ● O&G uses around 1 million gallons of water per site  ○ Such a large need that 2 billion dollars were taken out of TX’s rainy day fund   


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