Alcoholic Beverages BIO 304
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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Date Created: 05/01/16
th Key Box: April 19 ***: Know for test Alcoholic Beverages besides definitions A. Alcoholic beverages vs. Stimulating beverages ***: Definition Central nervous Central nervous system system DEPRESSANT STIMULANT ** **: Word origin/ scientific name Fermentation Fermentation process is only process is caused by a chemical change that occurs *** : Titles a true microbial inside of a plant (Microbial) Single cell fungus= YEAST Yeast + Sugar (yeast eats sugar and produces) = ethanol and carbon dioxide Saccharomyces = “Saccharo”: genus for sugar cane; “myces”: fungus (mycology) = sugar fungus/ yeast (wild fungus) B. Ethanol dissolves readily in water, thus it can transport itself quickly through the cell wall (in other words: Because ethanol is soluble by water the body absorbs it so quickly that we cannot break it down as fast as we can consume it = inebriation/ drunkenness) C. Humans consume alcohol worldwide, but animals also consume alcohol: a. Elephants eat fermented fruit and get drunk; along with many other animals https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=50tlF3kGbT4#t=206.633921 b. Cedar Waxwing (little bird) flies down here in winter months and only eats fruit. Most fruits during our winter are fermented and gets the birds drunk D. No naturally produced alcoholic beverage exceeds 18% a. Anything higher than 18% kills the yeast b. Saké is the only alcoholic beverage that approaches 18% (naturally produced) i. Whiskey is NOT naturally produced E. Two methods that produce alcoholic beverages greater than 18%: i. Distillation ii. Fortification Mead Mead is the ancestor of all alcoholic beverages o It is made from honey (honey is naturally high in sugar/energy) Dilute honey with water- draws sugar out and then bacteria (yeast) can get to it and fermentation occurs naturally Fermentation process takes about 6-8 weeks Today’s example: Honey Jack is distilled mead Wine Wine = fermented fruit juice (any fruit) 1. Most wine produced today is made from grapes Wine is naturally produced/fermented A. 1 consumption of wine dates back to 8,000 years ago a. This was around the same time we became farmers B. Greeks were the first to use wine as a COMMON beverage a. Wine was mostly used in religious practices before it became a common drink b. Stored wine in vessels that were sealed with pine resin often the resin seeped into the wine and changed the flavor of the wine (bitter) C. Romans were the 1 to improve the flavor of wine a. They basically just didn’t use pine resin to seal their vessels; eliminating the pine resin open the door to many different, flavorful wines D. Wine was attempted to be grown in Louisiana, but our harsh summer heat and humidity ruined its chances. However, it was discovered that: You can graph desirable wine grapes to root stocks of native grapes to resist/ grow accustomed to native bacteria and fungi grow hearty a. Example: Muscadine roots make for great root stocks to graph French wine grapes (They are both members of the Vitis family) Wine production: 1. Extract juice from grapes 2. Entire fermentation time of average wine = 30 days a. 2 steps: i. Initial fermentation period a. If skin is left to color wine (red grapes) leave the skins for 8-10 days, then strain juice and remove peelings i. Grape skins can be pressed again to make inferior wine or wine vinegar ii. In the next 20 days, anything in the wine solution begins to reside at the bottom (sediment accumulates at the bottom of the tank from liquid) o Color of wine is determined by pigment in the skin of the grape a. White wine can be made from either red or green grapes (just remove the skin before fermentation) b. Red wine can only be made from red grapes (remove the skins after the first part of fermentation to color the wine) o Further steps taken to producing high quality wine: a. Draw wine very carefully from one tank/container to another, leaving behind the sediment= this is called racking b. Then age wine before pushing it into the market c. Long aging = rack the wine again (leaving even more sediment behind) i. The number of times a wine is racked increases the quality of wine E. Bulk wines are simply filtered rather than racked and typically aged for one year F. Even the best white wines are not aged more than 5 years a. After 5 years, they begin to lose quality G. Red wine improves quality much longer 10-30 years Quality of wine depends on: 1. Climate/ Weather during particular year the grapes were produced and harvested; reason why people say “that was a good year” when looking at dates on wines 2. Kind of grapes used during the blending of their juices 3. Fermentation process what/how they do it 4. The handling and aging of the wine the storage/handling Dry vs. Sweet Wine o Dry Wine yeast uses up all the sugar before fermentation is stopped o Sweet Wine stop fermentation process before all the sugar is converted st Or they add more sugar to the wine April 21 Champagne Champagne is basically sparkling wine o Add extra sugar at the end of fermentation and conceal it so the yeast would produce high carbonation naturally A. Now champagne is produced in many ways: 1. The most expensive way = i. produce liquid in individual bottles ii. store/age bottle upside down to collect sediment in the neck of the bottle iii. once sediment settles freeze the neck in liquid nitrogen and uncork the bottle, remove the sediment and recork the bottle iv. can repeat this process multiple times 2. Another way = i. Ferment the liquid in sealed containers and bottle it under pressure 3. Least expensive = i. Take a still wine and add carbon dioxide to wine as it is bottle (similar process to carbonating soft drinks) Beer Northern Europe fermented grain to make alcohol due to their weather conditions being so drastically different from Southern Europe who used fruit to make wine st Possibility: beer was one of the 1 to be brewed dating back past 6,000 years ago or more o earliest of farmers drank this o Barley 1 grain commonly used in beer A. Early beers were highly variable in taste – when fermenting beer many microbes affected a batch, thus making every batch taste different a. To ensure quality/likeness of one brew; they put some of the original batch into the next batch to make it taste the same b. Now, beer is more uniform. Uniform beer brewing has only been in practice for the last 200 years c. And some of the products used in today’s brews were never used in ancient times 5 main ingredients: 1. Barley Malt 2. Yeast – there are many types of yeast - each affects the taste of beer differently 3. Hops – use of hops dates back 100s of years (discussed later) 4. Water – also greatly affects taste of beer 5. Adjuncts most recent addition to beer ingredients (not used in ancient times) These adjuncts are used more by US brewers than Europe and many other places); one reason for this is because they are cheaper to ferment/use Examples: corn syrup, potato starch, un-malted grains (rice) Process for making beer: 1. Preparation: Soak dry grain in water for about 40 hours 2. Drain the water and send grain to germinating 3. Germinating: in warm temps starch in grain is converted to sugar When sugar content reaches its highest amount then the grain is heat treated to stop further germination B. Hops Humulus – member of the Cannabaceae family (Cannibus family) a. It was originally thought to enhance the effects of beer – they smoked hops like Marijuana b. Hops accounts for the foam of beer and its bitter taste c. “Selected hops” = brewer played a part in picking which hops to use Grown in Oregon and Washington o Hops is a vine plant i. Flavoring of hops come from female (like marijuana) ii. Females also produce the larger quantities of oils o Often growers press hops into a pellet form instead of its natural form C. Yeast a. Ferment yeast at the top of beer: mostly American, “light” in color and thickness b. Ferment yeast at the bottom: Lagers and Ales D. Lite beer was first offered in 1960, but was not widely accepted **ONLY DATES a. 1975 1 Lite beer became acceptable (better quality at the time) – Miller Lite b. 1980 No less than 30 additional Lite beers were offered in the US market YOU NEED TO KNOW ON i. Reasons for it being “lite” = use fewer carbs during the brewing process EXAM** o 2 methods to make lite beer: 1. Begin the beer process using fewer carbs 2. The more preferred/typical way: add enzymes to the brew that will then convert all starch to sugar = fewer carbs, but also generates a slightly higher alcohol content a. Because of the higher alcohol content, some dilute the beer with water because the content is too high b. Thus, in general most Lite beers are slightly lower in alcohol content E. Different types of beers; some add: a. Roasted barley changes color b. Carmel adds texture and body Saké Referred to as Rice Wine it is not made from fruit like most wines, but rather made from grain in the Far East 1) Steam rice/ cook rice 2) Add aspergillus (mold) to rice the mold permeates the steam rice – after 48 hours, converts starch to sugar 3) Mix #2 with water and yeast, then allow yeast to make alcohol A. Saké is the only alcohol beverage that produces the highest alcohol content produced naturally a. Natural alcohol content = 18% b. On market (add ethanol) = 22-24% B. Shortest shelf life of any beverage – should be consumed with at least 1 year of production Whiskey Scotch Whiskey A. Used peat moss as a natural fuel to roast the barley used in whiskey – the peat moss gave off an aroma that made best scotch (this method has been used since the start of Scotch) B. How they are stored and aged makes a huge difference a. Use New Oak Barrel i. Char inside of barrel to give distinct taste to whiskey Bourbon Proof = twice the A. Began in Pennsylvania with Irish immigrants concentration of the B. Has to be made with: alcohol content a. 51% corn – aged for 2 years b. 95% alcohol Rum Fermentation of sugar cane juice A. Made in the tropics – especially in the Caribbean B. Where sugar cane is grown, rum is soon to follow (Recall the sugar triangle from previous chapters- sugar went to New England, and out of New England came rum) C. This beverage is aged: a. Distilled to a high alcohol content Tequila & Mescal Both made from the Agave plant also referred to as a century plant o The flowering stock of agave is what makes tequila and mescal A. New World beverage B. Process: 1. Crushing process- rolling the stock on a stone with a rock 2. then pick up the crushed agave stem/plant 3. put it in a wooden vat to ferment 4. after fermentation separate the liquid from material 5. Then take the liquid and boil it/ distill it C. Worm at the bottom of the bottle a. The worms are actually the larva from the moths that feed off of the agave plant i. They are red larva ii. When cutting up the plants, these larva are removed 1. They save these larvae and use them later by: a. Drying the larvae and selling them b. Put at the bottom of the bottles c. Or mash the dried larva and mix it with red pepper and salt to take after shots of tequila and mescal Brandy Made from wine o distilled wine resulting a concentrated liquid = brandy A. Cheap brandy = distill wine and then flavored B. Expensive brandy = take the fruit, ferment it, MAKE wine, and then distill it Gin and Vodka Made in a similar process to whiskey use malted grain Main difference = gin and vodka are o NOT aged o Are distilled to a higher alcohol % than whiskey A. Vodka, originally, lacked flavor agents B. Gin is very bitter a. Gin is flavored by adding juniper berries to account for its bitter flavor
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