Diversity of Life II Notes Week 14
Diversity of Life II Notes Week 14 211
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Syracuse University taught by Justine Weber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life II in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Diversity of Life II Notes Week 14 4/26/16 Birds Continued – Diversity of Mating Systems Monogamy (about 92% of bird species) Gametic (True) vs. Social Monogamy ExtraPair Copulations can increase fitness if birds are working together to gather food for offspring, protect from predators Ex. Yellow Warbler Polygyny (about 2% of birds) 1 male with a “harem” of several females; each female mate with just 1 male Ex. Bobolink Polyandry (about 1% of bird species) 1 female mate with several males Ex. Gallinule Lekking (about 6% of bird species) clustered territory of males displaying where females come to mate Ex. Prairie Chicken Promiscuity (about 6% of bird species) indiscriminant sexual relationships Ex. Rubythroated Hummingbird Communication – Song Use syrnix – 2 separate passageways and membranes some can generate 2 different sounds force air from air sacs up along either side of syrnix hitting tympanic membrane producing sound can make 2 sounds at once (great variety of vocalizations) Functions Advertising competition delineate territorial borders Communicate with conspecifics individual identification Ex. Blackcapped Vireo – has some of the highest vocabulary among birds (up to 8,000 different “words”) Calls – not melodic like songs, usually 12 notes Functions Location Flight calls Distress calls Alarm Blackcapped chickadees will alter alarm call, number of “dees”, depending on type and size of predator; useful between con and heterospecifics Foraging Copulation Other nonvocal sounds nothing to do with syrnix, usually use feathers in some way Ex. Ruffed Grouse – drum roll of feathers on chest to advertise Nests Scrape – most basic form, divet in ground with good camouflage Cup – sit in tree Hanging cup nests – more scooped structure, woven in using reeds of grass or using spider webs Platform – not much structure, found higher up (waterfowl, osprey) Cavity – typically in trees great shelter, 1 way in1 way out (not helpful when faced with predator) Colonial – en masse Adherent – swifts and swallows use mud and saliva mixture to hold nest together, attached to wall or cliff side Brood Parasitism – don’t build their own nests but will lay their eggs in someone else’s nest Brownheaded Cowbird, Cuckoo; more nomadic has independently evolved in multiple order over time convergent evolution Forms of Development Precocial (nearly fully developed and completely independent) Semiprecocial Semialtricial Altricial (totally dependent on parents for several weeks) Diversity of Bird Orders – Class Aves Modern Birds found in Neornithes Previous System – Sibley and Ahlquist Classification (1990) DNADNA hybridization 1970’s & 80’s 23 Orders …lots of things are classified as storks Contemporary – International Ornithological Congress, modern genetic methods 40 Orders (Only storks are storks) Currently most widespread system Now – lot of genetic approaches going on to refine system, so nothing is set in stone Superorder Paleognathae mostly flightless (secondary condition) many lineages extinct due to niche reduction, overhunted by human predators Extant species: ostrich, rhea, kiwi (more nocturnal), tinamous, cassowary, emu most have two large toes per foot, for stabilization and faster running Infraclass Neognathae Gallanoserae – Order Anseriformes (ducks, geese) Family Anatidae – Dabbling Ducks, Stifftailed Ducks, Bay Ducks and Sea Ducks, Mergansers (serrations on curved bill to help with grabbing fish), Swans, Geese and Whistling Ducks Common Traits Sexually dimorphic palmate feet (various amounts of webbing) grazing, dabblers, divers, piscivores (fisheaters) social monogamy, female care, precocial young Order Galliformes Family Phasianidae – turkey, grouse, Zimbabwe quail, pheasants, ptarmigans, prairie chicken good shortburst fliers to evade predators, not built for longdistance travel precocial young many aren’t doing very well, for many are lekking species and are losing their mating “arenas” due to habitat loss and fragmentations Megapodiidae (not found in North America, many in Australia and New Zealand) burrow into rotting leaf litter, lay eggs, pile on sand over eggs, and walks off compost gives the young eggs, will sand acts as insulation superprecocial young Neoaves – most modern birds, everything else Charadriiformes (shore birds) plovers, auks, puffins, sandpipers, gulls, skimmers, oystercatches, phalarope large diversity of foraging strategies leg length, bill length, specialized smell/tactile receptors Gruiformes (wetland birds) rails, gallinules, coots, cranes (unique courtship dancing) many have semipalmated feet (better for moving on land than fully palmated waterfowl) typically semiprecocial young Cucliformes – cuckoos, roadrunners primarily Old World birds Columbiformes – pigeons and doves use “crop milk” for feeding young Phoenicopteriformes – flamingos needs water for feeding using filtering system in bill semiprecocial young Apodiformes (“no feet”) – hummingbirds, swifts swifts use adhesive nests, made entirely of saliva greatly reduced feet, excellent fliers Caprimulgiformes – nighters, potoos, oilbirds Crepuscular (active at dusk and dawn) oilbirds can echolocate, but not to same extent as bats Podicipediformes – grebes (diving ducks) interesting mating ritual (involves mimicry) ‘Land Birds’ – within this clade are a dozen other orders informal name for large group supported only by molecular data ‘Water Birds’ – make living in water Procellariformes – tubenoses have keen sense of smell for detecting chemical cues along the ocean Spenisciformes – penguins Ciconiiformes – storks Pelecaniformes – pelicans, herons Suliformes – cormorants, anhingas, gannets, boobies, frigatebirds frigatebirds can spend several weeks on the wings without landing solely relying on updrafts Gaviformes loons 4/28/16 Dr. Mark Lomolino – Mammals Mammology – studies members of Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata, Class Mammallia Why Study Mammals Utilitarian (uses) – source of food (wild/domesticated mammals) hide, bones, teeth, fur, blubber pests that interfere with human use of environment (introduced or native species) rats Vectors of disease – plague, lyme disease, hanta virus Pets Recreational Hunting Educational – humans are mammals; important to understand anatomy, physiology, epidemiology and evolution of species Intrinsic scientific value Ecological Value – strongly influence ecological communities (Keystone species/ecological engineers) Ex. Sea otters (sea urchins, kelp forests), Beavers, Gray Wolves Evolutionary/taxonomic distinctiveness, replacement value Intrinsic/Aesthetic value – innate attraction to “cute” species Conservation 83 species extinction since 1500 Summary of Listed Species (United States Fish and Wildlife Services) Status of World Mammals 5,416 described mammal species (more like 5,555) 4,856 species evaluated in 2006, and over 1,000 were threatened (~25%) Review – Evolution of Everything “It all started with the Big Bang!” See David Attenborough – The Life of Mammals, A Winning Design ‘Warmblooded’, hairy (fur – insulation) most complex bodies in Animal Kingdom found just about everywhere and eat just about anything *Blue Whale – largest creature ever found to exist on the planet Human – most successful members? Persistent Themes of Evolution increased complexity of life forms (think song, melodies) increased diversity (types) of life increased range in sizes Diversification in isolation (gene flow is reduced and divergence occurs more rapidly) Life in aqueous soup (originated in water, and in some way all organisms still require it) Chemical Reactions – Enzymes having a higher (constant) internal body temperature allows enzymes to perform optimally, for many do better at higher temperatures (38°C) Increased Homeostasis (homeothermic) – independence from external environment Extinctions – backgroundrelatively lower amounts, seen throughout fossil record Episodic –wipe out huge amounts of entire species Permian extinction 250MYA wiped out 90%+ of life on Earth, but we have rebounded Resilience – turnover, resurgence and irreplaceable wiping out of lots of previous species opens up room for new groups Evolution occurs across space and over time Geologic Background – Dynamic Earth, Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Earth is approximately 4.5 Billion Years Old Intense heat from the inner core escaping in all directions results in gyres at the surface – causes continental drift (movement of oceanic plates causes movement of continental plates) Permian, 255 MYA Pangaea supercontinent reptiles broadly dispersed because of high interconnectedness, then diverged as the continents separated once again reduced coastline, rise in sea level by 100m changes in regional to global climates shallow marine habitat greatly reduced in area connections of continents/oceans spread of life Origins of Amphibians – 370MYA Earliest ancient Reptiles – 300MYA Ancestors of modern reptiles Mammals – 220240MYA Dinosaurs – 230MYA Birds – 150MYA
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