ANS 2: Week 5 Notes
ANS 2: Week 5 Notes ANS 002
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie Hayes on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 002 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. James Murray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Introductory Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
ANS 2: Week 5 Notes (4/25) ● Ruminant Stomach: more evolved with 4 chambers ○ Can’t digest their food any more than we can, bacteria do it for them ○ Can flow in/out of all chambers (even back up to mouth) ○ Eruption = bring up food to chew again ■ Allows fungi + bacteria to digest when chewed to tiny bits ○ Chambers can be many gallons (cow = 50, sheep = 6) ● Rumen environment must be appropriate for bacteria ○ Saliva adds sodium bicarbonate (buffer) to bolus ○ Brings the pH back up to neutral ○ Adjusting the diet can affect / upset the rumen environment ○ After rumen, moves to omasum ● Reticulum - honeycomb structure ● Omasum - absorbs lots of water ○ Also acts as a “size filter”; doesn’t let big molecules through ● Esophageal Groove - bypasses the rumen ○ If closed, can lead food directly to omasum ○ Good for young when drinking milk / colostrum ■ Feeds them NOT bacteria this way ● Abomasum - true acid stomach ● Pyloric Sphincter - controls flow of food out of stomach to small intestine ○ Don’t need one for esophagus bc the rumen isn’t acidic ■ Can move freely between the two without risk of burns ● Fistulated - Fistula - hole into stomach ○ Mainly in cows ○ Outside hole that reaches into stomach and allows interaction with it ● Oral Cavity ○ Lips- pick up food ○ Exocrine - salivary glands in mouth ■ Sublingual, submandibular, parotid ○ Teeth - dictated by diet (same with tongue) ○ Saliva- moistens + buffers food ■ Has anti-microbial proteins to control mouth bacteria ○ Trachea - rigid to allow air flow (esophagus is flaccid) ○ Epiglottis- switches between trachea and esophagus for air / food ● Monogastric Stomach ○ Esophagus moves food ○ Chemical digestion - HCl + enzyme digestion ○ Cardiac + pyloric sphincter ○ Microstructure: ■ Gastric Pit + Gland ■ Goblet Cells - specialized epithelial cells that secrete mucous ■ Parietal Cells- secrete HCl ■ Chief Cells- secrete various enzymes ● Pepsinogen → pepsin ● Pepsin = active form of pepsinogen, breaks down peptides ○ Secreted in inactive form so doesn’t digest cell ● Renin + Gastric Lipase ○ Ruminants fully break down sugars + build their own ● Gall Bladder - on liver ○ Secretes bile to assist with lipid absorption ○ LIVER MAKES BILE → gall bladder stores it ○ Breaks fat down to tiny pieces for lipase to digest ● Pancreas - secretes enzymes (exocrine and endocrine) ● Small Intestine - huge - basic digestion + absorption site ○ Acidic digestion is in stomach ○ Know overall plan* ○ Longitudinal vs. circular ○ Villi- increase surface area ○ Intestinal Folds- villi are on folds for even more surface area (4/27) ● Movement in Small Intestine ○ Outgrowths : (technically part of intestinal tract)(evolved over time) ■ Crop, liver, pancreas, cecum ○ Peyer's patch- lymph node embedded into surface ○ Villi- moves food between for absorption (+increases surface area) ■ Each has an artery, vein, and lymph node ○ Black dots= white blood cells = eosinophils ■ Push their way out to edge of villi to “sample” what’s going on ○ Enterocyte - crucial to health, absorbs, barrier between outside and inside of body inside intestine ■ Form of epithelial cell = about a week lifespan ○ White dots = goblet cells = fine layer of cells, secretes mucus ○ Diarrhea = villi get shorter and thicker = less surface area ■ Less absorption = more liquid released ● Villus ○ Lymph nodes = white blood cells ○ Enterocyte = absorptive cell ■ Normal cell with nuclei ■ Nuclei form dark ring along edge of villi ○ 2 routes: ■ Transellular= across membranes of epithelial cells ● Transport cells for nutrients across membrane ● Requires energy ■ Paracellular= squeezed between epithelial cells ● Really only water does this ○ Epithelium of gut is not all one type of cell ■ Junctions linking cells vary in permeability ■ Cell function/absorption/junctions differ in different parts of gastrointestinal tract ● Glycocalyx: ○ .3 um layer of mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins ○ Thin layer of epithelium ○ Provides absorption and enzymes for digestion of protein / sugar ○ Prevents some bacteria from entering body w/ mucus layer ○ Component of immune system (recognizes “invaders”) ● Most digestive enzymes are not supplied by pancreas ○ Pancreas only secretes what’s used for beginning of digestion ● Important Digestive Secretions: * ○ Know where and what each secretion is ● Nutrients and Digestion: ○ Know function ○ Essentially everything can be a toxin ■ 20 amino acids, 9 are essential, can make 11 of them ■ Water is only thing in it’s class (structural + regulatory) ○ Uses: Energy, Structural, Regulatory ■ Vitamins - regulatory ■ Proteins - everything (4/29) ● Six Classes of Nutrients + Functions: ○ Carbohydrates = energy ○ Fat = structure + energy ○ Protein = structure + energy + regulatory ○ Minerals = structure + regulatory ○ Water = structure + regulatory ○ Vitamins = regulatory ● NRC = National Research Council ○ Need to know appropriate nutrient levels for your animals ○ Zoo‘s especially dependent on proper nutrient levels ■ Animals could seem fine but won’t reproduce ■ Need exact dietary requirements to reproduce ● All animals need: energy, protein ○ other essential nutrients (dependent on animal) ● (takes 8 yrs for sturgeon to sexually mature) ● Other requirements: what food provides ○ *know proximate analysis chart* ○ Nutrients of a food change by environment and season ○ → first figure out H2O vs. dry matter (everything else) ○ → burn: separates organic (carb, fat, protein) from inorganic (minerals) ■ Inorganic won’t burn ● Macrominerals - bodies require a lot of ○ Microminerals - bodies only require some small amounts ○ Know example ○ Contain any element except C,H,O,N ○ Water soluble + water insoluble ○ Macro : Calcium (bones) ■ Phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, calcium ○ Micro : iron, copper, manganese, selenium ■ Copper in the blood of snails = blue blood ■ Too much Zinc interferes with Iron levels ● Protein : Nitrogen in all amino acids ○ Amino acids joined by peptide bond ■ Some amino acids function individually ■ Some polypeptides can be super long ○ Essential - must be ingested ■ Most contain sulfur (only source of sulfur) ■ Methionine = 1st amino acid in protein synthesis ○ Nonessential - body can produce ○ Rumen smell : hydrogen sulfide ■ Bacteria cut the sulfur off amino acids for themselves ■ Ruminants don’t see much sulfur b/c Bacteria steals it ○ Lysine = essential for nonruminants ○ Taurine = essential for cats (obligate carnivores) ■ Dogs = facultative carnivores ○ 9-11 essential amino acids (depending on growth stage) ● Water = 1st limiting nutrient ○ (die of thirst before you die of hunger) ○ Water not essential for all mammals ■ Gerbils make enough of their own in metabolic processes ○ Get from drinking or food (10-80% required by body weight) ■ Varies by species ○ Functions : metabolic rxns, transport, temperature regulation, shape ● Fat : most “bang for your buck” with energy ○ 2.25 x more usable energy than carbs ○ Glycerol backbone + simple fatty acid units ○ Body can make most but some are essential ○ Need varies by species ● Carbohydrates : ○ Sugars ■ Simple = easy to metabolize (glucose) vs. Complex ■ Polymers / disaccharides ■ C,H,O - provide energy ■ Glucose + glycogen can be stored in tissues ○ Crude fiber (cellulose = can’t digest) ○ Monosaccharides or polysaccharides ● CANNOT STORE ATP IN BODY
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