exam 1 review
exam 1 review BIOL2213 001
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by anm023 on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL2213 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Jacques Hill in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biosystem Engineering at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Human Physiology BIOL2213 Topic List for Chapter 1 – Homeostasis 1. Know the definitions of physiology and pathophysiology. a. Physiology – the study of how living organisms function b. Pathophysiology – lack of homeostasis, or physiology “gone wrong” 2. Know the levels of organization of the body from atoms to the whole organism. a. Atom, Molecule, Macromolecule, Organelle, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism 3. Know 4 different tissue types, there structure and functions and some examples of where in the body you would find them. (NOTECARDS!) a. Connective Tissue – connects, anchors, and supports structures in the body. Blood, Bone, Cartilage. Look like spider webs. b. Epithelial Tissue – Linings and coverings of organs and cavities. Secretion, Absorption, and protection. Sweat glands, Salivary glands, and mammary glands. c. Muscle Tissue – specialized to contract, generate mechanical force. Three types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Heart, blood vessels, and stomach. d. Nervous tissue – made of neurons and support cells, neurons generate electrical signals, control activities of other cells. Glial cells (neurons) in the brain, spinal cord and nerves. 4. Know the different organ systems, what organs belong to them and what their functions are. What aspects of physiological homeostasis does each regulate? See Table 11. (NOTECARDS!) a. Circulatory – Transport of blood throughout the body. Heart, blood vessels, blood. Nutrients, wastes, oxygen and carbon dioxide, and hormones. b. Digestive – Digestion and absorption of nutrients and water: elimination of wastes. Mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, anus, pancreas, liver, gallbladder. c. Endocrine – Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body, including growth, metabolism, reproduction, blood pressure, water and electrolyte balance, and others. All glands or organs secreting hormones: Pancreas, testes, ovaries, hypothalamus, kidneys, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, stomach, small intestine, liver, adipose tissue, heart, and pineal gland: and endocrine cells in other organs. d. Immune – Defense against pathogens. White blood cells and their organs of protection. e. Integumentary – Protection against injury and dehydration; defense against pathogens; regulation of body temperature. Skin f. Lymphatic – Collection of extracellular fluids for return to blood; participation in immune defenses; absorption of fats from digestive system. g. Musculoskeletal – Support, protection, and movement of the body; production of blood cells. Cartilage, bone, ligaments, tendons, joints, skeletal muscle. h. Nervous – Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body; detection of and response to changes in the internal and external environments; states of consciousness; learning; memory; emotion; others. Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and ganglia, sense organs. i. Reproductive – Male: Production of sperm; transfer of sperm to a female. Female: Production of eggs; provision of a nutritive environment for the developing embryo and fetus; nutrition of the infant. Male: Testes, penis, and associated ducts and glands. Female: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and mammary glands. j. Respiratory – Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; regulation of hydrogen ion concentration in the body fluids. Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. k. Urinary – Regulation of plasma composition through controlled excretion of salts, water, and organic wastes. Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra. 5. Know the different compartments that body fluids occupy and the characteristics of each. Know the relative volumes of each. Which compartment contains the most fluid? Which one the least? How do materials from the external environment flow through the system? (NOTECARDS!) a. Intracellular Fluid (ICF) – the fluid contained within all the cells of the body and accounts for about 67% (the most) of all the fluid in the body. b. Extracellular Fluid – the fluid present in the blood and in the spaces surrounding the cells, that is, all of the fluid outside of the cells. i. Plasma – of this extracellular fluid, only about 2025% is in the fluid portion of blood, which is called plasma, in which various blood cells are suspended. ii. Interstitial Fluid – the remaining 7580% of the extracellular fluid, which lies around and between cells. (Ex. Lymph). c. The materials flow through the internal environment as such, to the external environment: ICF ISF Plasm Organs. 6. Know the definition of homeostasis and the kinds of physiological variables that are regulated by homeostasis. a. Homeostasis – the “dynamic constancy” of conditions found in an organism’s internal environment. Regulates blood pressure, pH, Oxygen concentration, and body temperature. 7. Understand the concept of Homeostatic Control Systems and be able to give specific examples of homeostatic control systems and explain how they work (eg. Fig. 1.5). 8. Understand negative feedback, positive feedback, feedforward regulation. (NOTECARDS!) a. Negative feedback – An increase or decrease in the variable being regulated brings about responses that tend to move the variable in the opposite direction of the original change. b. Positive feedback – accelerates a process. c. Feedforward regulation – anticipates changes in regulated variables, improves the speed of body’s homeostatic responses, minimizes fluctuations in the level of the variable being regulated – reduces the amount of deviation from the set point. 9. Know the definition of a reflex and the difference between learned or acquired reflexes and “innate” reflexes. Know the components of a generalized reflex arc (Figure 17). a. Reflex – a specific involuntary, unpremeditated, unlearned “builtin” response to a particular stimulus. b. Learned reflex – behaviors that appear to be stereotypical and automatic but that in fact result from considerable conscious effort to be learned. c. Innate reflex – an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus. The example he gave of someone touching a hot stove and pulling their hand away would be an “innate” reflex. 10. Know the different ways that signals can be sent through the reflex arc (chemical messengers, nerves, etc.). a. Afferent pathway – the signal travels between the receptor and the integrating center (“to carry to”). b. Efferent pathway – the signal travels from the integrating center to the effector (“to carry away”). 11. Understand “Local Homeostatic Reponses.” Be able to describe them and give examples. a. Local Homeostatic Response – response acting in immediate vicinity of a stimulus, without nerves or hormones, and having net effect of counteracting stimulus. When cells of a tissue become very metabolically active, they secrete substances into the interstitial fluid that dilate local blood vessels. The resulting increased blood flow increases the rate at which nutrients and oxygen are delivered to that area, and the rate at which wastes are removed. 12. Know what chemical messengers are, how they work, and the three main classes of them (hormones, neurotransmitters, and paracrine substances). a. Hormones – enables the hormonesecreting cell to communicate with cells acted upon by the hormone – its target cells – with the blood acting as the delivery system. They play key roles in all physiological processes, including growth, reproduction, metabolism, mineral balance, and blood pressure. b. Neurotransmitters – chemical messengers that are released from the endings of neurons onto other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells. c. Paracrine substances – chemical messengers involved in local communication between cells. 13. ??? Understand the meanings of and difference between the terms adaptation and acclimatization biological rhythms and circadian rhythms. How they are related to homeostasis. a. Adaptation – characteristic that favors survival in specific environment. b. Acclimatization – improved functioning of an already existing homeostatic system based on an environmental stress (high altitude in Denver, Colorado). c. Circadian Rhythm – occurring in an approximately 24 hour cycle. d. These are related to homeostasis because each of these try to correct our organs into our “normal routine” or change so that our organism can live comfortably. 14. Understand how the concentrations of chemical substances are regulated in the body. What factors influence the amount of the substance in the “pool” and how can the pool change forms (Fig. 111). Terms to know physiology, pathophysiology, differentiation, tissue, epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue, basement membrane, extracellular matrix, extracellular fluid, plasma, interstitial fluid, intracellular fluid, physiological homeostasis, negative feedback, positive feedback, hormone, afferent pathway, efferent pathway, stimulus, receptor, integrating center, reflex, effector, target cells, endocrine regulation, paracrine substance, neurotransmitter, autocrine substance, pool, negative balance, positive balance, and stable balance. Figures to know and or understand: 11, 12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 110, 111 You are expected to know all the information in this chapter in order to understand the rest of the material in the course. You will be responsible for the following parts of this chapter for the exam: 1. Know what ions and electrolytes are and be able to give some examples of important ions in the body. a. Ions – also called electrolytes, ionize when dissolved in water and important for many physiological processes. Na , K , Cl, Ca , H , and HCO 3 2. Know the properties of polar and nonpolar molecules and understand how that relates to whether a molecule is hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or amphipathic. How does this relate to solubility of compounds in water? (NOTECARDS!) a. Polar molecules – tend to be more soluble in water and readily dissolve in the blood, interstitial fluid, and intracellular fluid. b. Nonpolar molecules – tend to be less soluble in water. c. Hydrophilic – molecules are attracted to water and dissolve easily in it, these molecules are also polar and can form hydrogen bonds. d. Hydrophobic – molecules are repelled by water and do not dissolve, these molecules are nonpolar and do not form hydrogen bonds. e. Amphipathic – a special class of molecules that have a polar or ionized region at one site and a nonpolar region at another site. 3. Know what hydrogen bonding is. a. Hydrogen bonding – forms between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another. 4. Understand the basics of solutions (solute, solvent, concentration). a. Solute – substances dissolved in a liquid. b. Solvent – the liquid in which the solutes are dissolved. c. Solution – when solutes are dissolved in a solvent. 5. Understand the concept of pH. What is it a measure of? How does the value of pH relate to the hydrogen ion concentration? What kinds of chemicals act as acids? Why? What kinds of chemicals act as bases? Why? Know the pH scale and what values are acidic and what are basic (alkali). a. pH – the amount of ionized hydrogen from water in a solution. The value of pH +¿ ¿ H related to the hydrogen concentration is as follows: . Hydrochloric ¿ pH=−log¿ acid, vinegar, lemon juice all act as acids because they have a pH lower than 7. Sodium hydroxide, oven cleaner, and household bleach all act as bases because they have a pH higher than 7. 6. Understand the concepts of buffers and how they work. a. Buffers – used to minimize pH disturbances. A chemical substance that takes up or releases hydrogen ions. Terms to know – polar, nonpolar, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, amphipathic, solute, solvent, solution, concentration, acid, base, buffer, osmotic concentration Study Guide for Chapter 3 – Cell Structure, Proteins and Metabolism 1. Know the components, properties, and functions of the cell membranes and other membranes in cells. a. Membranes – composed of phospholipids, cholesterol, and membrane proteins. b. Phospholipids – one end has a charged or polar region, and the remainder of the molecule, two long fatty acid chains, is nonpolar, therefore, amphipathic. c. Cholesterol – Forms organized clusters that work together to pinch of portions of the plasma membrane to form vesicles that deliver their contents to various intracellular organelles. d. Membrane Proteins – integral membrane proteins, transmembrane proteins, and peripheral membrane proteins. 2. ***Know the difference between integral and peripheral membrane proteins. Know the structures that serve to attach cells to one another (tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions). a. Integral Membrane Proteins – closely associated with the membrane lipids and cannot be extracted from the membrane without disrupting the lipid bilayer (amphipathic). b. Peripheral Membrane Proteins – are not amphipathic and do not associate with the nonpolar regions of the lipids in the interior of the membrane. They are located at the membrane surface where they are bound to the Polar Regions of the integral membrane proteins and also in some cases to the charged Polar Regions of membrane phospholipids. c. Tight Junctions – forms when the extracellular surfaces of two adjacent plasma membranes join together so that no extracellular space remains between them. d. Desmosomes – consist of a region between two adjacent cells where the apposed plasma membranes are separated by about 20nm. Characterized by accumulations of protein known as “dense plaques” along the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. e. Gap Junctions – consists of protein channels linking the cytosols of adjacent cells. 3. *** Know the structures that make up the cytoskeleton and what their functions are. a. Cytoskeleton – composed of actin filaments (microfilaments), intermediate filaments, and microtubules. b. Actin filaments – composed of monomers of the protein G-actin, which assemble into a polymer of two twisting chains known as F-actin. Play an important role in determining cell shape, the ability of cells to move by amoeboid-like movements, cell division, and muscle cell contraction. c. Intermediate filaments – composed of twisted strands of several diferent proteins, including keratin, desmin, and lamin. Also contribute to cell shape and help anchor the nucleus. Provide considerable strength to cells and consequently are mot extensively developed in the regions of cells subject to mechanical stress. d. Microtubules – hollow tubes about 25nm in diameter, whose subunits are composed of the protein tubulin. The most rigid of the cytoskeletal filaments and are present in the long processes of neurons, where they provide the framework that maintains the processes’ cylindrical shape. 4. Know the process of protein synthesis (transcription and translation). a. Transcription – process of transferring genetic information from DNA to RNA in the nucleus. b. Translation – process that uses the coded information in RNA to assemble a protein in the cytoplasm. 5. Understand how ligands bind to proteins and what factors affect that binding. a. Ligands – bind to proteins by the Lock and Key Binding method. The ligand and the binding site are complimentary and there is an attractive force between the protein and the ligand. Binding depends on the concentration of the ligand and the specificity of the active site. 6. Understand how the binding of a ligand to a binding site can be regulated. Know the different types of allosteric modulation. Understand covalent and allosteric modulation of proteins. a. The binding of a ligand can be regulated by allosteric modulation. b. Allosteric Activation – enhance the amount of products made when bound to the allosteric site. c. Allosteric Inhibition – little or no product formed. d. Allosteric Modulation – the activator, when bound to the allosteric site, changes the shape of the functional site. e. Covalent Modulation – causes a change by chemical exchange with usually a phosphate group. 7. Understand the term metabolism and know the difference between catabolism and anabolism. a. Metabolism – the synthesis and breakdown of organic molecules required for cell structure and function and the release of chemical energy used for cell functions. b. Catabolism – the breakdown of organic molecules. c. Anabolism – the synthesis of organic molecules. 8. Understand the terms used to describe chemical reactions. Reactants, substrates, products. a. Reactants also called Substrates <--> Products 9. Know the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction (Table 3- 5). 10.Understand reversible reactions and irreversible reactions. 11. Know the Law of Mass Action. a. Law of Mass Action – the direction of a chemical reaction is determined in part by the concentrations of reactant and product. 12. Understand how enzymes function. a. Enzymes catalyze biological reactions and lower the activation energy of a reaction. 13. Understand what factors affect the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reactions: concentration of the substrate, concentration of the enzyme, changes in enzyme activity through allosteric or covalent modulation. ADD NOTECARD!!!!!! a. Concentration of the substrate: may be altered as a result of factors that alter the supply of a substrate form outside a cell. Intracellular substrate concentration can also be altered by cellular reactions that either utilize the substrate and thus decrease its concentration, or synthesize the substrate, and thereby increase its concentration. The rate of an enzyme mediated reaction increases as the substrate concentration increases until it reaches a maximal rate, which is reached when the enzyme becomes saturated with substrate (when the active binding site of every enzyme molecule is occupied by a substrate molecule). b. Concentration of enzyme: the rate of an enzyme mediated reaction can be increased by increasing the enzyme concentration. In most metabolic reactions, the substrate concentration is much greater than the concentration of enzyme available to catalyze the reaction. Therefore, if the number of enzyme molecules is doubled, twice as many active sites will be available to bind substrate and twice as many substrate molecules will be converted to product. To change the concentration of an enzyme, either the rate of enzyme synthesis or the rate of enzyme breakdown must be altered. Because enzymes are proteins, this involves changing the rates of protein synthesis or breakdown. c. Enzyme activity: This occurs when either allosteric or covalent modulation alters the properties of the enzyme’s active site. Such modulation alters the rate at which the binding site convert substrate to product, the affinity of the binding site for substrate, or both. The modulator molecules that allosterically alter enzyme activities may be product molecules of other cellular reactions. The result is that the overall rates of metabolism can adjust to meet various metabolic demands. In contrast, covalent modulation of enzyme activity is mediated by protein kinase enzymes that are themselves activated by various chemical signals the cell receives from, for example, a hormone. 14. Understand the concept of a multienzyme reaction (metabolic pathway) and how they work. a. The sequence of enzyme-mediated reactions leading to the formation of a particular product. Sometimes enzymes have diferent concentrations and so some steps are slower than other and this step is known as the rate-limiting reaction. Also, end-product inhibition occurs. As the concentration of the product increases, the inhibition of further product formation increases. 15. Know what an essential nutrient is and the major categories if these. a. Essential Nutrients – about 50 substances required for normal or optimal body function cannot be synthesized by the body or are synthesized in amounts inadequate to keep pace with the rates at which they are broken down or excreted. Water, Mineral Elements, Essential Amino Acids, Essential Fatty Acids, Vitamins, and Other Essential Nutrients. Terms to know –fluid mosaic model, desmosomes, tight junctions, gap junctions, actin filaments, Intermediate filaments, microtubules, ligand, chemical specificity, binding site, affinity, saturation, competition between ligands for binding site, competition between proteins for ligands, functional site, regulatory site, modulator molecule, phosphorylation, protein kinase, reactant (substrate), product, activation energy, catalyst, active site, enzyme activity, end product inhibition. Study Guide for Chapter 4 – Movement of Molecules Across Membranes 1. Know the definition of simple difusion. a. Simple Diffusion – Movement of molecules from one location to another solely as a result of their random thermal motion. 2. Understand the factors that afect difusion through a lipid bilayer. What types of molecules can pass and which cannot? Size, polarity, charge. Polar substances and ions cannot pass through. Non-polar substances (carbon dioxide, oxygen, lipids and steroids) can. a. Non-polar molecules can pass through a phospholipid bilayer and polar molecules cannot. Carbon dioxide, oxygen and steroid hormones can pass through whereas water, Na , Ca , and Glucose cannot. 3. Understand the concept of membrane potential. What causes it and how is it measured? How does it influence the movement of materials across a cell membrane? What is the electrochemical gradient? a. Membrane potential – a separation of electrical charge exists across plasma membrane of all cells. Negative on the inside and positive on the outside. It is measured in millivolts and it is measured by negatives and positives. If the inside of a cell has a net negative charge with respect to the outside, there will be an electrical force attracting positive ions into the cell and repelling negative ions. b. Electrochemical gradient – The direction and magnitude of ion fluxes across membranes depend on both the concentration diference and the electrical diference. These two driving forces are known as the electrochemical gradient. 4. Know how channels allow substance to difuse through lipid bilayers. How is movement through channels regulated? a. Movement through channels is regulated through ligand-gated channels, voltage gated channels, and mechanically gated channels. 5. Know the various forms of mediated-transport systems: Facilitated difusion, primary and secondary active transport, cotransport and countertransport. a. Facilitated diffusion – uses a transporter to move the solute form higher to lower concentration. b. Primary active transport – active transport in which chemical energy is transferred directly from ATP to transporter protein. c. Secondary active transport – active transport in which energy released during transmembrane movement of one substance from higher to lower concentration is transferred to the simultaneous movement of another substance from lower to higher concentration. d. Cotransport (symporter) – movement of the actively transported solute into the cell. e. Countertransport (antiporter) – movement of the actively transported solute out of the cell. 6. Know the definition of osmosis and how water can move through a plasma membrane. What membrane proteins are involved? (Aquaporins) a. Osmosis – Difusion of water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane. Water moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through aquaporins. 7. Understand the concept of osmolarity. How is the concentration of water related to the concentration of a solute? Be able to predict the movement of materials across a selectively permeable membrane if you are given the permeability of the membrane to the diferent molecules and the concentration of the solutes on either side of the membrane. Be able to describe the relative osmolarities of two solutions using the terms isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic. a. Osmolarity – total solute concentration of a solution. b. Isotonic – No change in cell volume, the concentrations are in equilibrium (equal inside and outside of the cell). c. Hypotonic – the cell shrinks, the concentration of water inside the cell is greater than outside the cell making the water move out of the cell causing it to shrink. d. Hypertonic – the cell swells, the concentration of water inside the cell is less than the outside of the cell causing water to move into the cell causing it to swell and maybe burst (cytolysis). 8. 4.4 Know how exocytosis and endocytosis move materials though cell membranes. Know the diferent types of each. a. Exocytosis – membrane-bound vesicles in the cytoplasm fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents to the outside of the cell. b. Endocytosis – regions of the plasma membrane can often be seen to have folded into the cell, forming small pockets that pinch of to produce intracellular, membrane-bound vesicles that enclose a small volume of extracellular fluid. c. Pinocytosis – an endocytic vesicle encloses a small volume of extracellular fluid. d. Phagocytosis – cells engulf bacteria or large particles such as cell debris from damaged tissue. e. Receptor-medicated endocytosis – certain molecules in the extracellular fluid bind to specific proteins on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. 9. 4.5 Know the diferent forms of transport across an epithelium and how the various combinations of simple difusion, osmosis, facilitated transport, and active transport at the apical and basolateral surfaces accomplish movement across the epithelium as a whole. a. Paracellular pathway – difusion occurs between the adjacent cells of the epithelium. b. Transcellular pathway – a substance moves into an epithelial cell across either the apical or basolateral membrane, difuses through the cytosol, and exits across the opposite membrane. Terms to know –difusion, difusion equilibrium, electrochemical gradient, ion channels, voltage gated channels, ligand gated channels, mechanically gated channels, mediated transport, facilitated difusion, active transport (primary and secondary), cotransport, countertransport, osmosis, aquaporins, isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic, pinocytosis, phagocytosis, phagosome, receptor mediated endocytosis, apical membrane, basolateral membrane, paracellular pathway and transcellular pathway. Figures to know and/or understand: 4-1, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, 4-7, 4-8, 4-9, 4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 4-13, 4-14, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17, 4-18, 4-19, 4-20, 4-21, 4-22, 4-23, 4- 24.
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