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Final week

by: Morrissette32
GPA 3.54

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Chapters 17 and 20
Direct instruction in Mathematics
Mrs. Mohney
Class Notes
Math, directinstruction, sped482
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morrissette32 on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sped 482 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Mrs. Mohney in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Direct instruction in Mathematics in Special Education at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 05/01/16
Final Week Chapter 17 Two advantages of the metric measurement system over the customary measurement system: 1. Since the metric system uses the base-10 place value system, instruction in decimals directly relates to measurement skills. With customary units, different place value base systems are required for weight. 2. In the customary system, there is no commonality among the units for various measurements, while there is commonality among the metric units. The question facing most teachers is not whether to teach about the metric system but rather whether both systems should be taught simultaneously, and if not, which should be taught first. Recommended that the two systems be taught independently of one another, preferably at different times during the year. The basic procedure for introducing new units to students includes five steps. 1. tells the function of the specific unit 2. illustrates the unit. 3. demonstrates how to use measuring tools, measuring to the nearest whole unit. 4. presents application exercises in which the students determine the appropriate tool to use when measuring an object. 5. presents an equivalency fact, such as 12 inches equals one foot. In fifth or sixth grade, after decimals have been taught, exercises designed to teach students about the structure of the metric system should be presented. There are three basic steps in any conversion problem: 1. determining whether the “new” unit is larger or smaller than the original unit. 2. determining what multiple the larger unit is in relation to the smaller unit. 3. multiplying when converting to a smaller unit or dividing when converting to a larger unit. The pre-skills for teaching conversion problems with customary units are knowledge of multiplication and division facts. A ruler in which an inch is divided into a greater number of parts is introduced only after students have demonstrated mastery is using the preceding ruler in the series. Chapter 20 The coordinate system can be introduced to students as early as the third or fourth grade. Students learn the coordinate system more easily if initially they receive the points written as (x=5, y=6) Teachers model applying the function to determine the y value when the x value is given (after completing the table, the students plot the points with a straight line). A necessary pre-skill for ratios and proportions if the ability to find equivalent fractions. Teach students to write the labels in the problem as numerators and denominators on both sides of the equal sign. Students can apply their knowledge of classification word problems to ratio problems in tables. Teachers can now introduce more sophisticated ratio tables, including those that contain fractions that represent classes. Given a set of classifications represented as fractions, students can create a ratio table using the numerators of the fractions as the ratio. The numerators express the ratio of each of those terms. Students are taught to test to determine if a number is a prime number by asking themselves, “can this number be divided by something other than 1 and itself?” If the number in question can be divided by something other than 1 and itself, it is not a prime number. Finding prime factors involves attempting to divide a number by each prime number, in order, as many times as possible. Students learn that cancelling is possible because they are cancelling fractions that equal one and therefore do not change the value of the fraction. Integers include both positive and negative numbers. The first step of the structured board presentation involves teaching students in the following rule: 1. If the signs of the numbers are the same, you add 2. If the signs of the numbers are different, you subtract. 3. When you subtract, you start with the number that is farther from zero on the number line and subtract the other number. 4. The sign in the answer is always the sign of the number that was farther from zero. If you multiply by a minus value, you write the opposite of the sign. The rule is simple and efficient in that students need learn only one rule rather than the traditional four. Teachers explain that the number that is repeated is called the base number, and the exponent is the number of times the base number is repeated. Expanded notation can be used to show how to simplify exponents. Simplifying exponents is just like simplifying prime factors in that the same numbers in the numerator and denominator are canceled.


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