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One week of notes for sociology

by: AlliSlaten

One week of notes for sociology Soc 100-001

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Sociology > Soc 100-001 > One week of notes for sociology
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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures from this week
General Sociology
John R Brouillette
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 100-001 at Colorado State University taught by John R Brouillette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Sociology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 05/01/16
Chapter 7- Deviance - Aurora and Newtown: Who’s to blame? - Movies? TV? Video games? - Warped personalities - Physiological disorders- mental illness - School security systems SRO • • Metal detectors - Parents, teachers, politicians, peers • To what extend are we looking at the agents of socialization to blame? • When does it become the fault of television, parents, peers, etc.? - Policies that give us easy access to guns • NRA - Deviance - Deviance- Behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society - Statistical deviation- when you are not common • ex. having blue eyes, being 7’2” - General Paradigms of Deviance - Biological- Something in their body(hormonal, genetically, physiologically, biologically) that is an issue or a problem that causes deviance - Psychological- self esteem or personality disorders - Sociological - Sociological perspectives - Functionalist- Deviance is a basic part of social organization. By defining deviance, society sets its moral boundaries. - Interactionist- Deviance is a part of socially constructed reality that emerges in interaction. Deviance comes into being an individuals label something deviant - Conflict- Deviance results from inequality. - Functionalist perspective #1 - Merton’s Strain theory- Deviance is a result of a gap between society’s culturally defined goals and the means available to achieve them. - Functionalist Perspective #2 - Opportunity theory- Deviance is a result of a gap between society’s culturally defined goals and the means available to achieve them. Strain plus illegitimate opportunity structures are available • There is something in the way of meeting a goal but there is a deviant way to achieve your goal • Ex. cheating on a test, taking money laying around - Clicker question - Question: Crime differs from deviance in that crime • Answer- is a violation of norms enacted into law - Question: A recent study in an English maximum security prison found that inmates who ate large amounts of potato chips were most likely to be aggressive. This supports the paradigm • Answer- Physiological - Deviance is out there waiting to be discovered - Interactionist Perspective #1 - Labeling theory- acts are deviant or criminal because they have been labeled as such - If different people commit the same deviant act shouldn’t the consequences the same? the answer is no. - Look at who is making the laws? Are thy deviant? • Do they have the right to decide what is deviant and what isn’t? - Question: What percent of the students in the clicker question about the support of marajuana • Answer: 60% support it - A norm violator will be labeled deviant depending on the social characteristics of the: • characteristics of the perpetrator (not so much what you do but who does it) • characteristics of the victim • the characteristics of the person doing the labeling • characteristics of the judge - Interactionist Perspective #2 - The Medicalization of Deviance • There is an increase of deviant acts being labeled as medical conditions and being treated as so The growing influence of psychiatry and medicine in the United States has • influenced definitions of deviance • The medicalization of deviance— the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition - Interactionist Perspective #3 - Differential Association Theory • Deviant behavior is learned in the interaction with others • Influenced by who we are around - Interactionist Perspective #4 - Hirschi Control Theory • Deviance occurs when social bonds to conventional institutions, such as the family, school, or employer are weak • People will deviate if they don’t have a strong bond with an institution keeping them on track - Question: “Honey, better take all the beautiful vases off the coffee table. Two- year old Ben is coming over this afternoon and will probably destroy them.” What perspective best explains the phenomenon? • Answer: Opportunity Theory - Question: “Beth be sure to be home from the party by 9pm. You know what type of people stay up until 10pm. This supports ____ theory. • Answer: Differential association theory - Conventional Street Crime - Violent-force against others - Property- robbery, larceny, motor vehicle theft - Moral- victimless crimes (prostitution, drug use, illegal pornography) - As John talked about crime he talked about it through a conflict theorist mind - Deviance and Inequality- Social Conflict Analysis - Deviance reflects social inequality - People we commonly consider deviants share the trait of powerless - The norms of any society generally reflect the interests of the rich and the powerful - People who threaten the wealthy are defined as thieves or radicals - Conflict Perspective #1 - Deviance and Power relations • The lifestyles considered deviant by political and economic elites are often defined as illegal • Social dynamite- rioters • Social junk- poor, homeless • Deviance is defined by those in power over those who don’t have power - Conflict Perspective #2 - Deviance and Capitalism • The laws and the criminal justice system protect the power and privilege of the capitalist class • Capitalism is based on private control of wealth • Capitalism depends on productive labor • Capitalism depends on respect for authority • Anyone who directly challenges the capitalist status quo is likely to be defined as a devint - Conflict Perspective #3 - Feminist Approches • Liberal- women’s deviance arises from gender discrimination • Radical- focuses on patriarchy Socialistic- emphasizes the effects of capitalism and patriarchy on women’s • deviance - You’re most likely to become the victim of fraud if you belong to which demographic group? - Answer- People over 50 - Question- According to the most recent government survey, which type of scam now lures the most victims? • Answer- Credit related scams - White collar crimes are more severe and harm more people than street crimes - How does the homicide rate in the U.s. compare to other technologically advanced countries? • Answer- it’s much higher - Higher homicide rate is with positive correlation with high incarceration rate - Number in Prison - The U.S. has less than 5 percent of the worlds population - There are 2.3 million people in prisons and jails - That figure equals 23 percent of the entire world’s prison population - For or Against Capital Punishment- U.S. 1936- 59% for • • 1966-42% for • 1994- 80% for • 2007- 71% for • 2011- 61% for • 2013- 51% for - Social Stratification - Social Stratification- a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy - American Dream- The belief that if people work hard and play by the rules, they will have a chance to get ahead • Is based on the assumption that people in the U.S. have equality of opportunity regardless of their race, creed, color, national origin, sex, or religion - Global Systems of Stratification - Slavery- some people are owned by others - The Caste System- people’s status is determined at birth (ascription) - The Class System- people’s status is based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work they do (achievement) - Life Chances- probabilities of benefiting or suffering from the opportunities or disadvantages one’s society offers • Life expectancy- how long you live • Principle cause of death- how you die • Physical health Mental health • • Justice system • Economic well-being - Functional Perspective - Davis- Moore thesis- Inequality is not only inevitable but also necessary for the smooth functioning of society • All societies have certain positions that must be filled • Some positions are more important than others The most important must be filled by the most qualified people • • The positions that are most important for society and that require scarce talent, extensive training, or both must be the most highly rewarded • The most highly rewarded positions should be those that are functionally unique (no other position can perform the same function) - Conflict Perspective - Inequality is the result of conflict - Differences in resources serve the interest of some and harm others - Inequality is useful only to some people; it is not inevitable - Values and beliefs tend to be ideological; they reflect the interests for the more powerful members of society - Cultural Evaluation of Functionalism - If functionalism importance really explains the high reward that people enjoy, how do you measure functional importance? - Functionalist exaggerate social stratification role in developing individual talent • Have the rewards for high positions gotten out of class? Are there limits for the rewards? - By contending the social stratification benefits all of society, the functionalist ignore how social inequality promotes conflict and sometimes outright revolution - Critical Evaluation of Conflict Theory - Doesn’t motivate people to perform various social roles that require some system of unequal rewards - Question- Social inequality is greatest in ___ societies. • Answer- Agrarian (agricultural) - The gap between the rich and the poor in the United States is severe but not as bad as Brazil or Mexico. - Compared to Canada, our gap is much larger - Question- The gab between the rich and the poor is greatest in which of the following? • Answer- United States - U.S. Class Structure - Upper (Capitalist) class- 5% • Upper- upper- less than 1%(Gracious living) • Lower- upper- 4%(Gracious living and career, church helps their career) - Middle Class- 45-50% • Upper- middle- 15% (career, more in debt because they know that to get their children ahead education is the key) • Average- middle- 30-35% (Respectability— moral value, being good citizens, being good parents, volunteering in the community, church goers for religious reasons, credit card class, typical American class, tend to be larger families) - Working Class- 33% (Get by, type of job you have— tend to be more hands on work and manual, over all income is lower than middle class because their careers tend to plateau instead of climbing like the middle class, education tends to be lower than the ones above) - Lower Class- 20% (Living on the edge or apathy) • Living through one pay check, homeless • sick and isolated, mentally and physically not well • Not worried about materialistic things • If there is a church in the neighborhood then they go, if not then they don’t go - New Class Society - Super- 1-2% - Credentialed- 13-15% - Professional- 2-5% - Comfort- 10% - Contingent- 50% - Excluded- 20% - The gap between the highest and the lowest is only growing and growing - YouTube Video- middle class - Middle class has historically been victims of the economy - Prided with earning their status not being born into it - Over 2/3 of the class grew up in the middle class - 20 years from now, 80% see themselves in the middle class - Who Gets Ahead— Christopher Jencks - Education(measured by years of formal school) - Who your parents are (Measured by How many children are in the family and Fathers occupation) - Luck - Race and Ethnicity - Sex - Hard work (measured by an achievement scale that saw your dedication to reaching certain goals) - RESULTS • Education and who your parents are were the most important factors - Functionalist like the graph that shows that the economy is increasing and has been historically because it looks at the group as a whole - Reasons for lower mobility in the United States - The rise of the money culture • How can I major in money? - Bank deregulation in the 1980s and 90s - Technology- jobs done by machines - Rise of emerging markets, especially China and India - Question- Emily and her husband, Mark, are high school teachers, volunteer every weekend at the homeless shelter, and are very religious. They are probably members of the ____ Answer- Average- middle class • - Poverty - Relative poverty- the deprivation of some people in relations to those with more - Absolute poverty- a deprivation of resources that is life threatening or inability to afford minimum standards of food, clothing, etc. - Blame the poor- Functionalist, the poor are mostly responsible for their own poverty • Culture of poverty- the people themselves or their family are responsible and is their responsibility to help themselves - Blame society- society is primarily responsible for poverty - What countries think the Major causes of poverty - US- lack of individual’s effort - Mexico- Societal injustice - Who are the poor? - Poverty level is hanging at around 14% when historically its about 12% - Age • 19.9% are under 18 • 9.5% are elderly, 65 and above - Race and ethnicity • mainly minorities - Sex/ Gender 31% of female head of household • - Hidden costs of class - Acceptance of symbols of inability - Question- Who does the government spend more on: • Answer- Health care for the richest 10% of elderly medicare beneficiaries - Question- Government housing subsidies end up going___ • Answer-more to the middle class than the poor Chapter 10- Gender Stratification - Gender- a social construction that varies across cultures, over time, within a given culture, and in relation to the other gender • Socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with members of each sex - Sex/Gender roles - Differences between men and women - Sexism- subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex - Objectification- treating people as objects or things; not human - 3 Areas of possible sexism • Power- the ability to mobilize collective resources, to accomplish things, to overcome opposition, to dominate others • .Job/ Income- Women earn $ 0.78 for every $1.00 earned by men • Image- How men and women are portrayed— psychological/ behavior attributes - Sex role differences - Sociobiologist • Innate Certain sex role differences are inevitable • - Functionalist • Tradition • Sex role differences were useful in the past and are still useful today - Conflict Theorist • Power is the defining factor • Sex roles reflect a conflict of interest between men and women and will change if and when women gain more economic power - How are the sexes different? - Biological Evidence • Anatomical • Genetic • Hormonal - Psychological Evidence - Cross- cultural evidence • Arapesh • Mundugumor • Tchambuli - Strength is defined as being the strength to survive not the narrow ethnocentric definition as upper body strength - Years to parity by state - U.S. average— 53 years (2068) • Florida- 1st (23 years) • Colorado- 19th (42 years) Chapter 9— Global Stratification - Life Chances • life expectancy infant mortality • • health • education and literacy • persistent gaps in human development - World Poverty - Relative- the deprivation of some people in relation to those with more - Absolute- a deprivation of resources that is life threatening or inability to afford minimum standards of food, clothing, shelter, and health - Rich have more control over how they die and could reduce the likelihood of dying. Compared to the poor, there is no control over how they die because they cannot easily reduce the likelihood - Starvation - Every 2 seconds someone dies - Every minute- 29 - Per hour- 1,712 - Per day- 40,000 - Per year- 15 million - Correlates of 3rd world countries 1. Inadequate technology 2. Population growth— birth rates in 3rd world countries are highest and are lowest in the 1st world countries 3. Traditional cultural patterns 4. Social stratification 5. Gender inequality— in most of the world women die of starvation more than men 6. Global power relationships - Modernization Theory— Poor countries are poor because… - If countries are responsible themselves - Inadequate technology - Population growth - Traditional cultural patterns - Dependency Theory Rich countries are responsible for… - If the problems is with the richer and bigger countries - Global power relationships need to change - Rich countries are responsible for failing states - Question- Modernization theory is linked to…. • Answer- Functional approach - Question- Dependency theory is linked to… Answer- conflict approach • - Per Captia Income- Gulf War - of the 38 wars 1 has been fought in a rich country - Highest income countries supported the United States - War and Terrorism Civilian Casualties Chapter 11- Race and Ethnicity (Majorities and Minorities) - We will have more minorities than the majority (Caucasians) soon - Question- ____ are most likely to live in poverty • Answer- Native Americans - Brown VS Board of Education - Declared that segregation in schools wasn’t allowed based on skin color - Minority- A category of people distinguished by physical or cultural traits and are socially disadvantaged • Visibility • Disadvantaged in any way - European Stereotypes • Heaven is a place where the police are British, the cooks are French, the mechanics German, the lovers Italian, and the whole thing is organized by the Swiss • Hell is a place where the cooks are British, the mechanics are French, the lovers are Swiss, the police are German, and the whole thing is organized by the Italians. - Affirmative action- try harder to include different minorities/ give them a second look without having a set number of minorities that have to be included - Prejudice- a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about minorities (pre- judging) - Discrimination- any action that involves treating various categories of people unequally • Should we discriminate? - Categories of Minorities - Based on heritage and religious background • Race • Ethnicity Religion • - Based on age • Fetus • Minor • Elderly - Limited by socioeconomic system • Poor • Dropout • Consumer - Based on deviant behavior patterns Drug user • • Alcoholic • Ex- prisioner • Ex- mental patient • Youth and the counterculture - Based on Physical/ Mental status • Physically disabled • Physically deviant (midgets, obese) • Mentally disabled • Vetrans • Whistle- blowers • Police Officers • College student - Forms of Discrimination (A= Majority) - Pluralism • A+B+C= A+B+C - Assimilation A+B+C= A • - Melting Pot • A+B+C= D - Segregation • A+B+C=A/B/C - Genocide/ Deportation • A+B+C= A (B and C gone) - Institutional Discrimination- Unintended discrimination; it’s build into the normal operation of society • Majorities are often blind to this discrimination because it doesn’t disadvantage them - White Privilege- privileges that people have just because they happen to be born white rather than having earned them - Question- The adoption of the English language by Mexican immigrants to the U.S. is an example of • Answer- Assimilation - Micro-agressions - way in which certain groups of people can be disadvantaged - unintended discriminating comments or gestures - Types of Discrimination - Individual- intended actions against another person or category of persons - Institutional- usually unintended, built into the normal operation of society - Micro-agrgression- Usually unintended verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights and insults toward people - Question- Having all right handed tab arm chairs in a classroom is an example of ___ discrimination • Answer- Institutional - Minorities will form a majority of the entire U.S. population in ____ • Answer- TBH - Children are poorer than anyone - A gated community - The wealthy are segregating themselves from the general population rather than pushing the minorities and poor away • Reverse segregation - The elderly as a minority - Sex and the life cycle - 20s- tri weekly - 40s- try weekly - 60s- try weakly - 2050 forecast - Seniors will outnumber school age children - Question- The poverty rate for people over the age of 65 in the U.S. is… Answer- Lower than the national average • - Question- What effect does industrialization in a capitalistic society have on the social standing of the elderly? • Social standing goes down unless you’re wealthy - Myth and Fact about Elderly - Myth- the elderly are always sick; most are in nursing homes - Fact- over 80% are healthy enough to engage in their normal activities and only 6% are in nursing homes - Myth- elderly are dangerous drivers - Fact- they are good drivers - Myth- they are inefficient employees - Fact- They are better employees - Myth- elderly aren’t politically active - Fact- They are most likely to be politically active - Myth- elderly cannot adapt to new working conditions - Fact- you can teach a dog new tricks - Question- What age group is least likely to vote? • Answer- 18-21 years old - Functionalist Perspective - Disengagement Theory- the idea that society enhances its orderly operation by disengaging people from positions of responsibility as they reach old age - Symbolic Interactionist Perspective - Activity theory- the idea that a high level of activity enhances personal satisfaction in old age - Why waste the elderly as a resource in schools or hospitals because they are skilled and can do a service for low cost - It’s good from a societal view and elderly view because they want to be involved - Conflict Perspective - Aging is problematic in contemporary capitalistic society because in a capitalistic society we value how much and what people do and elderly do less Chapter 12- Institutions - Social Institutions - Institutions- everything it takes to meet the major needs of society - Basic social needs • Provide care for children; assure that he society has the appropriate number of people • Transmit cultural knowledge to the young • Share community values and solidarity • Take care of the sick; prevent illness and injury • Produce and distribute goods and services; provide employment • Distribute power; maintain order • Aggress or defend against enemies of the state - Organizations do NOT equal institutions - Health and society - Culture patterns define health - Culture standards of health change over time - Society’s technology affects people’s health - Social inequality affects people’s health - Traditional model of health- the absence of disease, not sick • Diagnoses and cures illness • wait until you get sick or injured then go to the doctor or big hospital to be cured, they were passive - Modern model of health- a state physical, mental, and social well-being Medicine is a social institution that diagnoses and cures illness AND promotes • health (preventative) • And its cures are holistic - We no longer die from communicable diseases, but rather from diseases of lifestyle • Poor diet • little exercise • Pressure/stress • Smoking Sexual practices • • Drug use (overuse and dirty needles) - Our health has been improving… why? - There is a weak relationship between health and the medical profession(technological advances) - Our state of health is largely determined by how we live our everyday lives - Holistic Medicine Embraces - more than just taking care of yourself physically


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