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Week 11 , Fossils

by: Aria Notetaker

Week 11 , Fossils ANTH 10300 01

Aria Notetaker
GPA 3.71

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About this Document

Overview of Chapter 8. This will come in handy for the extra credit paper and as finals approach!
Biological Anthropology
Professor Corewyn
Class Notes
Biology, fossils, Biological, Anthropology, primates, anthropologists
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aria Notetaker on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 10300 01 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Corewyn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in Biological Sciences at Ithaca College.

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Date Created: 05/01/16
What are fossils?   Fossils are the remains of once­living organism, wholly or partially transformed into rock. The  most common types of fossils are bones and teeth.     What do fossils tell us about the past?  ­ Fossils provide an historical record for documenting and understanding biological  evolution of surviving and non surviving ancestry.   ­ Provide information on chronology and geologic time  ­ Along with their geologic settings fossils reveal past diets, environments, and important  contexts for understanding how past organisms evolved.     What methods do anthropologists and other scientist use to study fossils?   ­ Geologic time provides the grand scale of the evolution of life. Both relative and  numerical dates place fossils and past events in a chronological order.   ­ Relative and numerical dates can be determined through various methods. Radioactive  decay is central to some of the best methods of determining absolute dates.   ­ Past climates and habitat in general can be reconstructed via two of the stable isotopes  of oxygen.   ­ Ancient animals’ diets and their habitats can be reconstructed through two of the stable  isotopes of carbon.       Key terms & Important Concepts:  Fossils are the very heart of the study of evolution.   Physical evidence of past life and its evolution  Two components: time and environment    Taphonomy: ​ The study of the deposition of plant or animal remains and the environmental  conditions affecting their preservation.     Sedimentary:​  rock formed when the deposition of sediments creates distinct layers or strata.     How Old is the past? Geologic Time: Earth History  ● Eras ­ major division of gelogic time that are divided into periods and further subdivided  into epochs.   ● Epochs ­ divisions of periods, which are the major divisions of eras, in geologic time.   ● Pangae ­ a hypothetical landmass in which all the continets were joined, approximately  300­200 million years ago (mya).   ● Tectonic ­ refers to various structures on Earth’s surface, such as the continental plates.  ● Steno’s law of superposition ­ the principate that the lower the stratum of layer, the older  its age: the oldest layers are at the bottom, and the youngest are at the top.       Relative Methods of Dating: Which is Older, Younger, the same age?  ● Stratigraphic correlation ­ the process of matching up strate from several sites through  the analysis of chemical, physical, and other properties.   ● Fluorine dating ­  a relative (chemical) dating method that compares the accumulation of  fluorine in the animal and human bones from the same time.   ● Chemical dating ­ dating methods that use predictable chemical changes that occur over  time.   ● Index fossils ­ fossils that are from specified time ranges, are found in multiple locations,  and can be used to determine the age of associated strata.   ● Cultural dating ­ relative dating methods that are based on material remains’ time spans.   ● Pebble tools ­ the earliest stone tools in which simple flakes were knocked off to produce  an edge used for cutting and scraping.    Absolute Methods of Dating: What is the Numerical Age?   ● Dendrochronology: A chronometric dating method that uses a tree­ring count to  determine numerical age.     ● Radiocarbon dating: the radiometric dating method in which the ration of 14C to 12C is  measured to provide an absolute date for a material younger than 50,000 years.    ● Isotopes ­ two or more forms of a chemical element that vary in the number of neutrons  in the nucleus and by the atomic mass.    ● Half­life: the time it takes for half of the radioisotopes in a substance to decay: used in  various radiometric dating methods.     ● Igneous: rock formed from the crystallization of molten magma, which contains the  radioisotope 40K; used in potassium­argon dating.    ● Radiopotassium dating ­ the radiometric dating method in which the ratio of 40K to 40Ar  is measured to provide an absolute date for a material older than 200,000 years.     ● Fission track dating ­ an absolute dating method based on the measurement of the  number of tracks left by the decay of uranium­238.     ● Amino acid dating ­ an absolute dating method for organic remains such as bone or  shell, in which the amount of change in the amino acid structure.     ● Polarized light ­ A kind of light used in amino acid dating because it allows amino acid  changes to be observed and measured.    ● Racemization ­ the chemical reaction resulting in the conversation of L amino acids to D  amino acids for amino acid dating.   ● Polarized light ­ A kind of light used in amino acid dating because it allows amino acid  changes to be observed and measured.    ● Racemization ­ The chemical reaction resulting in the conversion of L amino acids to D  amino acids for amino acid dating.     ● Paleomagnetic dating ­ an absolute dating method based on the reversals of Earth’s  magnetic field.     ● Electronic spin resonance dating ­dating method that uses microwave spectroscopy to  measure electrons’ spins in various materials.     ● Thermoluminescence dating ­ a relative dating method in which the energy trapped in a  material is measured when the object is heated.    The Driving Force in Shaping Environment: Temperature  ● Foraminifera ­ marine protozoans that have variably shaped shells with small holes.    ● C3 Plants ­ plants that take in carbon through C3 photosynthesis, which changes carbon  dioxide into a compound having three carbon atoms. Tending to be from more temperate  regions. These plants include wheat, sugar beets, peas, and a range of hardwood trees.     ● C4 Plants ­ take in carbon through C4 photosynthesis, which changes carbon dioxide  into a compound with four carbon atoms. These plants tend to be from warmer regions  with low humidity and include corn, sugar cane, millet, and prickly pear.    


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