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Bio Psych Chapter 3: Synapses

by: Meghan Pavelka

Bio Psych Chapter 3: Synapses PSY 3216

Marketplace > Appalachian State University > Psychlogy > PSY 3216 > Bio Psych Chapter 3 Synapses
Meghan Pavelka
GPA 3.73

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About this Document

Bio Psych Week 3 Lectures & Chapter 3 Textbook Notes
Biological Psychology
Dr. Zrull
Class Notes
#biologicalpsychology, #biopsych #psych #psychology, #neuroscience, #synapse, #synapses, #Psych #Bio #Neurotransmitters #Biology #Psychology #Neurons #Neuroscience #Brain #Transmittors #Eyes #Perceptions #Axons
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Pavelka on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3216 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Zrull in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biological Psychology in Psychlogy at Appalachian State University.


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Date Created: 05/01/16
Bio Psych Chapter 3: Synapses Lecture & Supplemental Textbook Notes  Neurotransmitters: released when action potential (AP) reaches pre­synaptic  terminal; NT on post­synaptic membrane produces post­synaptic potential (PSP) o NTs aren't excitatory/inhibitory; receptor dictates the classification o Action potential channels are sensitive to voltage/ion changes (depolarization) o Excitatory/Inhibitory PSP channels are sensitive to chemical (NT) changes o Characteristics:  Present in pre­synaptic terminal  Enzymes present for NT synthesis in pre­synaptic terminal or cell body  Released when AP reaches pre­synaptic terminal via Ca­dependent  mechanism  Specific receptors (for that NT) on post­syn. membrane is present, and can  be cloned  NT on post­syn. membrane produces PSP  Blocking NT release prevents pre­syn. cell from producing PSP in post­syn.  cell o Small molecule NTs: amines & amino acids (ACh, norepinephrine, dopamine,  etc.) o Bigger molecule NTs: peptides & gases (endorphins, oxytocin)  Synapse: small space between terminal & pre­synaptic membrane, synaptic cleft, post­ synaptic membrane; aka gap junctions o Pre­synaptic membrane: action potential sent to terminal; terminal membrane  depolarizes (Na flows in); Ca ion channels open (Ca flows in); Ca causes synaptic vesicles to fuse w/ membrane; neurotransmitter "spilled" into synapse; NT  diffuses across synapse  Features auto­receptors (involved in reuptake of NT) & transporter  molecules  NT exists in synaptic vesicles; transport molecules & proteins exist in  vesicle membrane to help NT diffuse (via Ca channel) o Post­synaptic membrane: NT molecules bind to receptors; receptor­NT complex  opens channel in membrane (NT action); ions flow through channels; result is  excitatory PSP, inhibitory PSP, or just change in cell activity (NT effect begins to  spread); NT action terminated via enzymatic deactivation or NT reuptake  Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP): when an excitatory presynaptic neuron fires an  action potential, depolarization occurs in the postsynaptic neuron (EPSP); pushes post­ synaptic neuron closer to AP threshold  Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP): decreases chance that postsynaptic neuron will  fire an AP; when an inhibitory presynaptic neuron fires an AP, the postsynaptic neuron  becomes hyperpolarized; result from chlorine channels opening (makes the cell more  neg.)  Inactivation of NT: stopping of transmission o Degradation: NT is broken down by enzymatic deactivation; transmission stops  when NT conformation changes (by enzyme) & can't fit binding site o Reuptake: via transporter protein to pre­syn. cell following activation of pre­syn.  autoreceptor by NT or uptake by glial cell; NT is recycled or broken down in glial cell into basic components to synthesize new NTs o Excess diffuses away from cleft  Post­synaptic Receptor Proteins: 2 big classes (Ionotropic & Metabotropic) o Ionotropic: includes an ion channel that opens when receptor binds to agonist  (initiates NT response); ligand­gated receptor; fast; when NT binds, ions (Na or  Cl) flow in & out o Metabotropic: G protein coupled; slow; doesn't have an ion channel  G protein: attached to receptor (on inside of cell); activated when NT binds;  a piece of G protein then leaves & binds to/activates ion channel; uses 2nd  messengers: NT starts process & subunit of G protein ends process  2nd type of metabotropic receptor: cAMP & PKA serve as 2nd  messengers; regulates metabolism of receiving cell  2nd messengers: slow­acting substance that amplifies effects of synaptic  activity  Spatial summation: summation of PSPs (at the axon hillock) from across the cell body; if  summation reaches threshold, AP is triggered  Temporal summation: summation of PSPs that reach axon hillock at diff. times; the closer in time they occur, the more complete the summation


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