Week 2 Notes ANTH 102
Week 2 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Week 2 Notes ANTH 102 History of Archaeology ● Early Archaeology: ○ Started as early as the Egyptians ○ Nabonidus (555 BC): Last king of Babylon ■ Excavated temples to find evidence of past kings ■ Rebuilt temples ○ Medieval Europe: ■ Remote past based on myths and legends ■ Largely from the Bible ○ James Ussher and Dating: ■ Used genealogies of the Bible to date the creation of the world ● The Renaissance (13001500 CE): ○ Antiquities as a pastime of the wealthy ○ Collection for artistic reasons produced interest in the past and cultural identities ○ Petrarch (13041374 CE): poet who saw the remote past as a period of ideal perfection ■ Idea of advanced civilizations that fell in the past (Atlantis) ○ Ciriaco (13911440 CE): considered to have established the modern discipline of archaeology ■ Actually studied the objects ○ Michael Mercati (1550s): librarian who catalogued local antiquities ■ Interested in their similarities and differences ● Age of Exploration: ○ Encounters with previously unknown people ■ Where did they come from? Were they human? ○ John Lloyd Stephens; Frederick Catherwood ● Speculative Phase: ○ Antiquarians and the collection of ancient artifacts ○ William Stukeley: European megaliths ○ Heinrich Schliemann: discovered Troy ○ Giovanni Battista Belzoni: Egyptian antiquities looter ○ Thomas Jefferson: moundbuilders; earliest scientific excavator ○ Pompeii excavated heavily in the 1700s ○ Jacques Boucher de Perthes (17881868): looked at gravel pits ■ Stone tools found with extinct animal bones ■ Extreme antiquity of humankind ■ Findings later deemed conclusive (true) ■ Set age of humans further back than the believed 4,000 years (biblical) ● Geologists and the Age of the Earth: ○ Time of massive construction revealing great exposures of earth = geology formed as a discipline ○ William “Strata” Smith (17691839): developed Law of Superposition ■ Earth = layers ■ Science of stratigraphy ○ George Cuvier (17691832): father of paleontology ■ Geological history using fossils as type indicators of strata ■ Indexed fossils certain fossils associated with certain strata ○ James Hutton (17261797): believed catastrophes unnecessary ■ Processes acting today same as in the past ○ Charles Lyell (17971875): identified Hutton’s Theory of Processes ■ Uniformitarianism: principle that the natural processes that shape the present are the same as in the past; true (gradualism) ■ Father of geology ■ Principles of Geology ○ Catastrophism: earth shaped by series of sudden, shortlived, violent events (not true) ○ Discovery of deep time ● Evolution: ○ Darwin, Wallace, and Natural Selection ○ Natural selection: ■ All organisms produce more offspring than can survive ■ Variation in all species ■ Individuals with advantageous traits tend to survive and reproduce, passing traits to next generation ■ Over time, more advantageous traits will become widespread in a population ■ Which traits are advantageous depends on environment and current conditions ● Beginnings of Modern Archaeology: ○ Antiquity of mankind Jacques Boucher de Perthes (prehistory vs. biblical past) ○ Concept of evolution Darwin and natural selection; impact on archaeology ○ 3 Age System by Christian Jurgensen Thomsen: ■ Chronological ordering ■ Stone Age Old Stone and New Stone ■ Bronze Age ■ Iron Age ■ Tools used in those time periods ○ Development of Archaeology as a Science: ■ Karl Richard Lepsius and Teobert Maler ■ Anthropology and Civilization: ● Edward Taylor and Lewis Henry Morgan ○ Cultural Evolution: Savagery to barbarism to civilization ○ Influenced Marxism ● Critiques of cultural evolution: ○ Progress? ○ Unilineal development ● Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes (1651): “natural” state of humanity is to be at war, not peace ● JeanJacques Rousseau: “Savage man, except when hungry, was a friend of all creation and enemy of none” Noble Savage ● 20th Century Archaeology: Transition to a professional scientific discipline ○ Culture History: ■ Tracking migrations and developments ■ Changes attributed to diffusion and replacement ■ Very descriptive ■ Focus on chronology ■ “Direct historical approach” ■ V. Gordon Childe: ● “Assemblages” of artifacts = “culture” ● Neolithic Revolution ■ Dominated 1930s60s ○ Development of Field Techniques: ■ General PittRivers: surveying and mapping; recovery of all objects ■ Sir Flinders Petrie: meticulous excavation; sequence dating ■ Mortimer Wheeler: gridsquare method ○ Beginnings of Interest in Anthropology: ■ 1940s50s ■ Alfred Kidder: cultural relationships over time ● Archaeology as a branch of anthropology which deals with prehistoric peoples ● Less emphasis on artifacts, more on people ○ Cultural Ecology and Cultural Evolution: ■ Julian Steward: societies adapt to environment; diet and paleoenvironment ■ Cultural Ecology: environmental determinism ■ Modern Cultural Evolution Leslie White ○ Processualism: Understanding cultural processes ■ Culture defined as environmental adaptation ■ Lewis Binford and “New Archaeology: ● Cultural history not explanatory ● Goal of archaeology exactly the same as anthropology ● Ethnographic info necessary to understand archaeological material culture ■ Logical Positivism (Empiricism): philosophy of science; using scientific method ■ Middle Range Theory: theory behind the methods used ■ High Range Theory: large culturallydetermined questions ■ Critiques: ● Postmodernist critique ● Critiques of scientific methods ● Critiques of objectivity ● Critiques of processual change ○ PostProcessualism: ■ Ian Hodder/Christopher Tilley: Interpretive Archaeology ■ Subjective, not objective ● Human agency ● Reject crosscultural comparisons and generalization ● Is objectivity even possible? ● Emic (insider info) vs. Etic (outsider info) ○ Gender Archaeology: ■ Consider social construction of gender identities and gender power imbalances ● Gender roles, ideology as a social construct ■ Traditionally androcentric bias (favors males) ■ Trie to better understand role of gender Paleoanthropology and Human Evolution ● Evolution: Change in gene frequencies over time in a population ○ Nonlinear more like a family tree ○ Environmental effects ○ Multiple causes ○ Caused by natural selection, mutation, genetic drift (genes change because random genetic selection), and gene flow (genes move between populations migration, reproduce with other populations) ● Classifying Early Humans: ○ Domain→Kingdom→Phylum→Class→Order→Family→Genus→Species ○ Binomial nomenclature ○ Not all apes are humans ■ Hominoid: Family(Superfamily) humans and all apes ■ Homininae: Family humans and some great apes ○ Species: group of individuals defined by their morphological similarities and ability to interbreed (ex. homosapians) ○ Sexual Dimorphism: differences in form and size of males/females
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