Plsc 101 Week 7 Lecture Notes
Plsc 101 Week 7 Lecture Notes plsc 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to plsc 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Paul Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see plant science in Botany at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
1 Plant Science Week 7 Lecture Notes Quiz 4 Answers [answers are underlined] Name one of the nitrogen fertilizers we discussed in the lecture: ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea, etc. [any of the 6 nitrogen sources] name one thing that can affect rainfall’s effectiveness on crop production: wind, how much rainfall at once, rapidity, etc. [any answer under the topic of precipitation in the crop plants & environment section of the notes] fertilizer formulations allow nutrients to be available to plants immediately after application: liquid soluble soil pH range best for plant nutrient availability: 67 addition of lime affects soil: increases pH short day plant that receives brief exposure to light during the night response: delayed flowering Corn Facts scientific name = Zea mays [know scientific name] outside US called maize corn is used for: food (humans) animal feeds (silage) sweetener biofuel alcohol industrial products Climate temperature avg. summer temp = 7080 F (greatest production) avg. night temp > 58 F minimum temp for germ = 50 F 2 prolonged days <45 F but above freezing can kill corn precipitation: 50% of water intake is utilized during the 5 weeks after achieving max. leaf area (tasseling stage) Botanical coarse annual grass 1015 feet tall monocot male flower tassel on terminal end female flower ear in leaf axil corn silk is the stigma and style distinct nodes and internodes types of corn roots: brace roots arise from nodes on the stem base and function to stabilize the plant; type of aerial root [stabilizing] coronal roots those from seed and that form 12 inches below soil surface; main source of uptake for plant Varieties corn is classified into 7 groups based on endosperm characteristics in the seed endosperm can be: soft starch or corneous (animal horn texture) 1.) dent corneous on sides and back of kernel starchy top makes a dent when dried most widely grown 2.) flint soft starch center & corneous outer layer stores better than flour types better resistance to insects & diseases 3.) flour soft starch throughout 4.) popcorn soft starch center & corneous outer layer smaller kernel than Flint 3 unique expansion properties (compared to other types) 5.) sweet high sugar content and no starch look translucent and shriveled when dried 6.) pod each kernel in a husk or pod like primitive corn types more ornamental Methods disking/plowing has decreased no till preparation becoming popular seed plant 1.52 in deep rows usually 2436 in apart poorer soils = 3,000 4,000 plants/acre optimum soils = up to 34,000 plants/acre 43,560 square feet in an acre Louisiana planting dates (be able to correlate crops to Louisiana economy, don’t have to know exact #s) South LA: Feb 25Mar 20 North LA: Mar 10 Apr 1 April 15 last day for max yield potential May 1 yields reduced by 30% 2013 Production: 643,480 acres harvested 186 bushels/acre $735.5 million value 2014 Production: 395, 279 acres harvested 4 182 bushels/acre $298.1 million value Wheat Facts Genera = Triticum (17 species) most important grain crop in the world “The staff of life” human nutrition breadmaking Climate adapted to temperate climates moderate temps avg. rainfall = 1020 inches/year [doesn’t need a lot of rainfall] high temps & humidity can = disease development Adaptation winter wheat in northern areas, planted fall & harvested following summer in southern areas, planted in fall/winter and harvested in spring Spring wheat planted in spring in northern latitudes (Dakotas/Canada) wheat is a longday plant & flowers in response to longer spring days Botanical annual grass fibrous root system 3 to 5 stems (tillers) per plant tillers develop in between leaf axils 5 inflorescence is long & spiked about 30 grains per seedhead Classes hard vs. soft heat based on hardness of kernel six classes: 1.) hard red winter 2.) hard red spring 3.) soft red winter 4.) soft white wheat 5.) hard white wheat 6.) durum Louisiana main type grown = soft red winter planting date: north LA = Oct 15 Nov 15 Central & South LA = Nov 1 Nov 30 planted then to avoid excessive rains & disease/freeze damage helps prevent soil erosion during winter provides cash flow in late spring 2013 production: 232, 813 acres harvested 64 bushels/acre $89.4 million value 2014 production: 149, 838 acres harvested 6 67 bushels/acre $63.4 million value Wheat Seeding Drill method seeds are placed at precise spacing and depth reduces seeding rate (6075 lbs./acres) good soiltoseed contact control of seeding depth more uniform stands Broadcast methods scattering seeds by hand or mechanically over large areas increased seeding rate (75120 lbs./acre) random seedling depth soil in not firmed around seeds can firm seed to soil with a cultipacker can harrow or disk seed into ground Notill method seeds are placed on undisturbed or nontilled soil planting straight into other crop residue (like into soybeans) useful on erodible or wet soils may increase seeding rate by 10% in heavy residue Seeding depth a depth of about 1 to 1.5 inches is adequate Depth (in) Emergence (%) 7 1 95 2 76 3 31 4 4
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