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Plsc 101 Week 7 Lecture Notes

by: randomchic12

Plsc 101 Week 7 Lecture Notes plsc 101

Marketplace > Louisiana Tech University > Botany > plsc 101 > Plsc 101 Week 7 Lecture Notes
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These notes cover the topics discussed in class during week 7. This includes: corn (facts, climate, botanical, varieties, methods, and Louisiana) and wheat (facts, climate, adaptation, botanical, c...
plant science
Dr. Paul Jackson
Class Notes
plant, plants, Science, plantscience, agronomy, agriculture, Environment, crops, crop, food, Corn, FACTs, climate, botanical, variety, varieties, methods, Louisiana, wheat, wheatseeding, seed, Seeds, seeding, seedings, maize, temperature, cornclimate, corntemperature, precipitation, cornprecipitation, monocot, cornsilk, silk, brace, coronal, roots, root, braceroots, braceroot, coronalroots, coronalroot, kernel, cornkernel, dent, flint, flour, popcorn, dentcorn, flintcorn, flourcorn, sweet, pod, sweetcorn, podcorn, planting, sowing, Soil, soils, plowing, disking, production, harvest, harvests, harvesting, bushels, bushel, acres, acre, Yield, wheatproduction, cornproduction, genera, triticum, bread, rain, rainfall, Adaptation, wheatadaptation, wheatclimate, cornbotany, botany, cornbotanical, botanicalcorn, varietycorn, varietiescorn, cornvariety, cornvarieties, cornmethods, methodscorn, cornmethod, method, methodcorn, cornlouisiana, louisianacorn, wheatfact, wheatfacts, climatewheat, wheatadaption, adaptationwheat, Winter, winterwheat, spring, springwheat, wheatbotany, wheatbotanical, botanicalwheat, annual, fibrous, fibrousroot, fibrousrootsystem, rootsystem, wheatclass, class, classes, classwheat, classeswheat, hardredwinterwheat, hardred, hardredwinter, hardredwheat, redwheat, hard, hardwheat, redwinter, hardredspring, redspring, hardredspringwheat, softred, soft, red, softredwinter, softredwinterwheat, softwhite, white, softwhitewheat, hardwhite, hardwhitewheat, durum, durumwheat, louisianawheat, wheatlouisiana, wheatseed, seedingwheat, seedwheat, drill, drillmethod, drillmethods, broadcast, broadcastmethods, broadcastmethod, broadcastmethodwheat, drillmethodwheat, seedling, seedlings, notill, no-till, notillmethod, no-tillmethod, notillmethods, no-tillmethods, depth, seedlingdepth, seedlingdepths
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to plsc 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Paul Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see plant science in Botany at Louisiana Tech University.


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Date Created: 05/01/16
1 Plant Science Week 7 Lecture Notes Quiz 4 Answers [answers are underlined] ­Name one of the nitrogen fertilizers we discussed in the lecture: ammonium nitrate, ammonium  sulfate, urea, etc. [any of the 6 nitrogen sources] ­name one thing that can affect rainfall’s effectiveness on crop production: wind, how much  rainfall at once, rapidity, etc. [any answer under the topic of precipitation in the crop plants &  environment section of the notes] ­fertilizer formulations allow nutrients to be available to plants immediately after application:  liquid soluble ­soil pH range best for plant nutrient availability: 6­7 ­addition of lime affects soil: increases pH ­short day plant that receives brief exposure to light during the night response: delayed flowering Corn ­Facts ­scientific name = Zea mays [know scientific name] ­outside US called maize ­corn is used for: ­food (humans) ­animal feeds (silage) ­sweetener ­biofuel ­alcohol ­industrial products ­Climate ­temperature ­avg. summer temp = 70­80 F (greatest production) ­avg. night temp > 58 F ­minimum temp for germ = 50 F 2 ­prolonged days <45 F but above freezing can kill corn ­precipitation: 50% of water intake is utilized during the 5 weeks after achieving max.  leaf area (tasseling stage) ­Botanical ­coarse annual grass ­ 10­15 feet tall ­monocot ­male flower­ tassel on terminal end ­female flower­ ear in leaf axil ­corn silk is the stigma and style ­distinct nodes and internodes ­types of corn roots: ­brace roots­ arise from nodes on the stem base and function to stabilize the plant; type of aerial root [stabilizing] ­coronal roots­ those from seed and that form 1­2 inches below soil surface; main  source of uptake for plant ­Varieties ­corn is classified into 7 groups based on endosperm characteristics in the seed ­endosperm can be: soft starch or corneous (animal horn texture) ­1.) dent­ corneous on sides and back of kernel ­starchy top makes a dent when dried ­most widely grown ­2.) flint­ soft starch center & corneous outer layer ­stores better than flour types ­better resistance to insects & diseases ­3.) flour­ soft starch throughout ­4.) popcorn­ soft starch center & corneous outer layer ­smaller kernel than Flint 3 ­unique expansion properties (compared to other types) ­5.) sweet­ high sugar content and no starch ­look translucent and shriveled when dried ­6.) pod­ each kernel in a husk or pod ­like primitive corn types ­more ornamental ­Methods ­disking/plowing has decreased ­no till preparation becoming popular ­seed plant 1.5­2 in deep ­rows usually 24­36 in apart ­poorer soils = 3,000­ 4,000 plants/acre ­optimum soils = up to 34,000 plants/acre ­43,560 square feet in an acre ­Louisiana ­planting dates (be able to correlate crops to Louisiana economy, don’t have to know  exact #s) ­South LA: Feb 25­Mar 20 ­North LA: Mar 10­ Apr 1 ­April 15­ last day for max yield potential ­May 1­ yields reduced by 30% ­2013 Production: ­643,480 acres harvested ­186 bushels/acre ­$735.5 million value ­2014 Production: ­395, 279 acres harvested 4 ­182 bushels/acre ­$298.1 million value Wheat ­Facts ­Genera = Triticum (17 species) ­most important grain crop in the world ­ “The staff of life” ­human nutrition ­breadmaking ­Climate ­adapted to temperate climates ­moderate temps ­avg. rainfall = 10­20 inches/year [doesn’t need a lot of rainfall] ­high temps & humidity can = disease development ­Adaptation ­winter wheat ­in northern areas, planted fall & harvested following summer ­in southern areas, planted in fall/winter and harvested in spring ­Spring wheat ­planted in spring in northern latitudes (Dakotas/Canada) ­wheat is a long­day plant & flowers in response to longer spring days ­Botanical ­annual grass ­fibrous root system ­3 to 5 stems (tillers) per plant ­tillers develop in between leaf axils 5 ­inflorescence is long & spiked ­about 30 grains per seedhead ­Classes ­hard vs. soft heat based on hardness of kernel ­six classes: ­1.) hard red winter ­2.) hard red spring ­3.) soft red winter ­4.) soft white wheat ­5.) hard white wheat ­6.) durum ­Louisiana ­main type grown = soft red winter ­planting date: ­north LA = Oct 15­ Nov 15 ­Central & South LA = Nov 1­ Nov 30 ­planted then to avoid excessive rains & disease/freeze damage ­helps prevent soil erosion during winter ­provides cash flow in late spring ­2013 production: ­232, 813 acres harvested ­64 bushels/acre ­$89.4 million value ­2014 production: ­149, 838 acres harvested 6 ­67 bushels/acre ­$63.4 million value ­Wheat Seeding ­Drill method ­seeds are placed at precise spacing and depth ­reduces seeding rate (60­75 lbs./acres) ­good soil­to­seed contact ­control of seeding depth ­more uniform stands ­Broadcast methods ­scattering seeds by hand or mechanically over large areas ­increased seeding rate (75­120 lbs./acre) ­random seedling depth ­soil in not firmed around seeds ­can firm seed to soil with a cultipacker ­can harrow or disk seed into ground ­No­till method ­seeds are placed on undisturbed or non­tilled soil ­planting straight into other crop residue (like into soybeans) ­useful on erodible or wet soils ­may increase seeding rate by 10% in heavy residue ­Seeding depth ­a depth of about 1 to 1.5 inches is adequate Depth (in) Emergence (%) 7 1 95 2 76 3 31 4 4


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