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Week 5 Introduction to Chicano History Notes

by: Anastassia Erudaitius

Week 5 Introduction to Chicano History Notes ETST 004

Marketplace > University of California Riverside > Culture > ETST 004 > Week 5 Introduction to Chicano History Notes
Anastassia Erudaitius

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About this Document

These notes cover what Dr. Lopez discusses in Lecture and also notes on the films shown in lecture. These notes cover Monday and Wednesday's lecture of Week 5.
Introduction to Chicano History
Dr. Lopez
Class Notes
UCR, etst, 4, chicano, history, Lopez
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anastassia Erudaitius on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ETST 004 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Lopez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chicano History in Culture at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 05/01/16
Chicano History Lecture 4/25/16  Hierarchy of credibility o This is who we lend credence to, or who we give credibility to o We give those with higher status, or those who fit the norm, more credibility o Example: getting on a plane, and notice 3 Chicanos are flying the plane  some people may not trust the Chicanos to fly the plane well o Example: Seeing a middle eastern, Asian, (etc.) name for your doctor and wanting another doctor because they are a minority, or a person of color o Example: not thinking your ethnic studies course is as important as some of your other courses  Insider/outsider o Example: an individual who might be Chicano but doesn’t have the Chicano interest in mind o Many times you have Chicano politicians who you would expect to be an advocate for the Chicano community, but in reality his Anglo counterpart is actually more receptive to the needs of the Chicano community  Outsider/insider o Harry McWilliams – he was white, and was a strong advocate for Chicanos  Primary labor market o Jobs and industries that have better wages, upward mobility in terms of promotions, benefits, security  Secondary labor market o Menial work, seasonal work o Example: Babysitting, car washing, landscaping business, cleaning pools o If you gave to buy your own health insurance o Service-type jobs  Sometimes Chicano police officers are even tougher with Chicanos than white officers are, because they feel that they have to be  Most of the time the Mexican aristocracy, or Californian aristocracy would side with the Anglo  As Chicanos were very diverse in both experiences (based on historical emergence in the U.S.0 and appearance  Texas – more exploitive, more racist, more oppressive to Chicanos historically o Many Chicanos come from Texas o Chicanos in California become more assimilated, than those in Texas o Many Chicanos in Texas have deeper Chicano culture, mainly because it is so segregated  For Chicanos there is the indigenous part of Chicano culture as well as the European experience  “Hispanic eccentricity is reproduced and multiplied in America, especially in countries such as Mexico …”  Jose Manuel Zozaya – first representative, ambassador of Mexico o “The arrogance of the republicans ( the U.S.) is not prepared to see us as their equals, but as inferior people”  Loving our resources, not us, and will not enter an agreement or alliance unless it is solely to their terms and to their advantage  U.S. will become our enemies  Resources that the land gives – copper, gold, etc. o Very perceptive – this is foresight of what is going to happen to Mexico o Prior the Mexican war in 1846  1846-1848: The Mexican-American War o The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – February 2, 1848  Regionalism  Caudillos – men were actually the regional bosses  had more of a say and influence than the national government as to what happened in their region  Nationalization didn’t take place until later  Trist knew it wouldn’t be easy to dominate and control them, and keep it under control  Polk thought he would be able to take all of the land, and wasn’t able to do so  The temporary Mexican government signed the Treaty de Guadalupe Hidalgo to protect the Mexican culture and interests o Mexicans “allowed to become U.S. citizens, with their culture left intact” o If economics is the reason for invasion of Mexico, would they really uphold the treaty?  Why did they want the land anyway?  Imperialistic tendency – wanted to take their land  Why would the articles be omitted?  Revolutionary vs Bandit o Bandits – want to just create havoc, rarely have a plan of action afterwards, and no leadership o Revolutionaries – leadership, seek change  Rebellion vs. Revolution o Mexican Revolution was actually a rebellion  Look up: o Joaquin Murrieta o Tiburcio Vasquez o Juan “Cheno” Cortina o Gregorio Cortez Chicano History Lecture 4/27/16 Film: The Struggle in the Fields o Prompt: The film chronicles the farm workers’ plight to unionize. What were their demands? What ploys and strategies were used to succeed in their efforts? What critical milestone was achieved in their struggle?  Mexican farmworkers walked off the fields  Tired of exploitation and inhumane treatment, and demanded the same opportunities other Americans were granted  Demanded living wage, education for their children, and decent housing to live without fear  They staked their claim by shouting “strike” o It became the battle cry for the Chicano Movement  The San Joaquin valley is a fertile agricultural region  Early 1960s migrant workers would pick crops here  One man -- Earned 2500 a year, no education, cannot read  A woman – said she earned 2 dollars a day for work  Farmers didn’t treat their workers with any respect or dignity  Exposure to dangerous pesticide all for substandard wages  Children often had to work in their fields with their parents  Farmworkers were trapped in a vicious cycles  Without economic rights you do not have educational rights  Tremendous feeling of isolation and fear, never knowing if you’ll have enough money  1965 Filipino workers called a strike against grape o In Coachella Valley o Grapes you don’t pick today are ruined tomorrow  so the grape growers quickly met their demands, until later  With Filipinos on strike there could be a financial disaster  The bosses were threatening everyone (deportation, losing their jobs) th  NFWA called a strike meeting (Sept. 16 ) – people started talking about fighting back – Cesar Chavez stood up and started to talk  Workers were thinking of the strike in terms of days, or weeks, but not years  Grapes require year-round attention by workers  To be successful the strike needed a strong, unified stand against the growers o They sometimes embarrassed other workers into coming out of the fields and joining the strikes  The growers had access to injunctions that would limit the effectiveness of their reach to the strikebreakers  The strike became more than a labor issue  Cesar Chavez – encouraged non-violence, human rights that went beyond the economic aspects that unions operated on  discussed the racisms of schools, opportunities for the children  Responding to the boycott Bobby Kennedy was questioning why the workers were being arrested before they had even done anything wrong o Arresting them before they violated the law  The more publicity, the better (for the strikers)  “The farmworkers have suffered, and it needs to be changed”  Farmworkers had been on strike for 5 months with no end in sight  Cesar Chavez decided to make a pilgrimage – to march 300 miles to Sacramento – hoped to recruit enough men, women, and children to support their cause o Their route would pass through hostile territory (in the heart of the San Joaquin Valley) o Each night along the route they attended rallies o The Virgin de Guadalupe represented the very soul of the people, and legitimized the idea that they were following the Virgin de Guadalupe  Many of the growers took it personally – that they were not the devil, they were also Catholics o The farmworkers performed skits ridiculing the growers  People became more confident  Cesar saw this and developed a resource of organizers  sent them out to other areas to recruit more farmworkers o Creating posters, banners, etc. was the only way they could spread their message  both positive and negative things o The farmworkers won their first victory – one of the companies ready to negotiate  It signaled to the workers that they could actually win, this was the affirmation that it was possible  The DiGiorgio fruit corporation still refused to cooperate  Cesar Chavez read from the Plan of Delano – which laid out objectives of the workers  August 1967, the farmworkers had been on strke for almost 2 years  the DiGiorgio Corp. signed an agreement  Giumarra Growers o Started using different labels  so the workers decided to boycott the entire … o Growers “do not feel that the union organizers represent their workers”  People didn’t stop to think about where the food they ate came from o People were supportive, and so they started putting pressure on the stores o The boycott strategies took hold as mayors and others joined to support the workers  The farmworkers union became the heart and soul of the Chicano Movement, because it was the most visible and vulnerable, yet people were still out there taking a stand in the most brutal and dangerous situations you could imagine  The strike started 1965, and 2.5 years later they were still on strike o Some workers decided that the non-violence strategy wasn’t working o Cesar Chavez was troubled by talk of using violence against growers  Cesar followed Martin Luther King, read Gandhi, and thought the same tactics could be applied  Cesar Chavez started to fast o It confused many of his followers, many got upset and many left o People believed he was trying to play god o It forced folks to reflect the struggle, and where it was at that point, and whether or not they wanted to continue sacrificing o Chavez was ordered to appear in court (2 weeks into his fast) to determine whether or not the Union had broken any laws by picketing on Guiamarra property  3000 peaceful farmworkers came to the courthouse  The fast was the glue that made the union the union o After 25 days Chavez broke his fast at a mass (Kennedy by his side) th  By 1969 the farmworker’s strike was in its 4 year  Workers began to pressure supermarkets and retailers again not to support the grape companies o The chain stores announced they would stop selling grapes (New York, Detroit, and more places) o Stores didn’t want farmworkers picketing in front of their doors o Union labels put on grape boxes – union grapes were being bought by stores, and being sold for more o The growers realized that they were losing money, and also wanted to sign contracts  John Guiamarra – workers told him they wouldn’t sit down with him unless he rounded up every Delano grower  5 years after the strike had begun – 26 Delano growers signed contracts  The vast majority of farmworkers were without a union o A generation of Chicano youth were ready to demand a better education  In the fields, the farmworkers movement had left a lasting legacy of change o Taught them they could fight, stand up for their rights, and win


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