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Week 5 Notes ANTH 102

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Week 5 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102


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About this Document

These notes cover Week 5 material - Modern Humans, Upper Paleolithic Life/Art, and Peopling the Americas
Intro to Archaeology
Rory Dennison
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.

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Date Created: 05/01/16
Week 5 Notes ANTH 102    Modern Humans  ● Upper Paleolithic:  ○ Composite tools: more than 1 material used  ■ Microliths to create barbs on arrows/spears  ○ More variation in tools  ○ More perishable materials ­ net, oil lamps, woven material  ○ Chronology (40­11 kya):  ■ “Creative explosion” ­ lots of symbolism  ■ Changes in Europe and Middle East, Australia for the 1st time  ■ Periods:  ● Aurignacian (40­26 kya):  ○ Dufour bladelets  ○ Bone and antler used  ● Gravettian (36­33 kya):  ○ Burins (drilling) and small bifacial points  ● Solutrean (23­20 kya):  ○ Thin, symmetrical, leaf­shaped points  ● Magdalenian (20­12 kya):  ○ Bone harpoons ­ marine = diversified diets  ○ Characteristics:  ■ Broadening of subsistence strategy  ● More forests ­ harder to hunt  ■ Domesticated dogs ­ help hunt; protection  ■ Expanding forests and woodland animals  ○ Marine resources:  ■ Shellfish, sea mammals, mollusks  ■ Pinnacle Point (160 kya) ­ earliest seen marine resources  ○ Long­distance transport/exchange of raw materials  ■ Whale bones found long ways inland ­ from travel or trade  ○ Significant art and body ornamentation ­ evidence of ritual  ■ Symbolism and Art:  ● Blombos Cave, S Africa (70­140 kya): ochre ­ red dye that can be  carved directly; ochre processing  ● Venus figurines (28­20 kya)  ○ Stone or fired clay  ○ Multiple locations in Europe  ● Jewelry: personal ornaments of shell, ivory, teeth; dyed with ochre  ● Body ornamentation ­ piercings  ○ Clothing:  ■ Well­made  ■ Loss of body hair 1mya  ■ Clothing (body) lice ­ 170 kya  ■ Clothes deteriorates over time  ■ Hair nets  ■ Fur clothing  ○ Musical Instruments:  ■ Flutes (bone easy to hollow), bull­roarer, idiophone  ■ Hohle Fels, Germany (35 kya)  ○ Dwelling Structures:  ■ Mammoth bone huts ­ Ukraine (15 kya)  ■ Dolni Vestonice ­ bones hold up animal skins to make huts  ○ Ritual Burials:  ■ Ornamentation  ■ Sungir, Russia (25 kya): ochre­lined grave of 2 adolescents with 76,000  ivory beads  ● Other burials lacked grave goods ­ early evidence of inequality?  Upper Paleolithic Life and Cave Art  ● Mural Art:  ○ 40 kya in Europe ­ 150+ caves  ■ Caves still show paint because less erosion/weather  ○ Also in S Africa and Australia ­ less preservation because no caves  ○ Cave Art Sites:  ■ Usually far back in cave where hard to get to ­ only painter/helpers would  know how to get there  ■ Oldest = El Castillo (40 kya)  ■ Chauvet Cave (38 kya)  ■ Lascaux Cave (17 kya)  ■ Altamira Cave (15­18, 35 kya)  ■ Lots of redoing art on top of each other  ■ Usually animals (game animals); handprints  ■ Can radiocarbon date if organic pigment used  ● Reasons:  ○ Hunting Magic ­ animals with spears in them  ○ Fertility Magic ­ pregnant animals  ○ Shamanism ­ human body with animal head  ○ Storytelling ­ retell, not predict hunt  ○ Maybe no reason  ● Themes:  ○ Animal Life ­ herd animals that were hunted and used; predators more rarely  ○ Handprints ­ leave negative image of hand (outline)  ■ Primarily women’s hands  ○ Geometrics ­ repeating patterns  ○ Humans ­ usually dead or with animal parts (least common)  ● Creation:  ○ Painting or engraving  ○ Animal hair paintbrushes; moss  ○ Stencils ­ remove cave wall to get lighter shades  ○ Red, yellow, brown, black, white ­ earthy colors  ○ tube/straw to blow pigment ­ handprints  ○ Lots of overlapping drawings ­ probably different artists over time  ○ Very skilled  ■ Make things look in motion  ■ Use cave wall surface in paintings ­ incorporate surface structures  ○ Chauvet Cave  ● Are art and ritual proof of social organization?  ● Subsistence and Settlement Summary:  ○ Hunter­gatherers  ○ Large game hunters  ○ Structures ­ Dolni Vestonice; Mal’ta  ○ Use bedding/matting  ○ Arrive in Eurasia  ○ Complex cognition:  ■ Blade­based stone tool technology  ■ Improved hunting tools/weapons  ■ Broad subsistence base (megafauna, fish, etc.)  ■ Artifacts from assortment of materials (wood, bone, etc.)  ■ Use plant materials for purposes other than consumption  ● Movement of Modern Humans:  ○ India by 70 kya  ○ Europe by 40­50 kya  ○ Americas by 15 kya  ○ Australia:  ■ Lower Pleistocene sea level  ■ Sunda (SE Asia)  ■ Sahul (New Guinea, Australia)  ■ No interconnecting land bridge  ■ Wallace Line: differences in ecozones (species)  ■ Had to have had seafaring technology to reach Australia  ■ Stepping stones to Australia:  ● Tabon Cave (25­10 kya)  ● Niah Cave (50­25 kya)  ● Ngandong (50­25 kya)  ● Wajak (50­25 kya)  ■ Humans in Australia by 40­60 kya  ● Bobongara Hill, Papua New Guinea (40 kya)  ● Lake Mungo (40 kya)  ● Artifacts in lower strata (56­60 kya)  ● Lake Mungo: ritualized burials; partial cremation; buried with  ochre  ■ Rapid movement  ○ Oceania:  ■ New Guinea 1st  ■ Melanesia (20 kya)  ■ Hawaii (1500 ya)  ○ Pacific Islands: Lapita Culture  ■ Distinctive ceramics (~1350 BCE)  ■ Bismarck Archipelago  ■ No close ties to other cultures  ■ Human Impact:  ● High % of endemic species ­ isolated, unique  ● Over 2000 bird species extinct  ● Introduction of alien species  ● Modification of environment  Peopling the Americas  ● Clovis thought to be the 1st group over ­ not very supported  ● European ideas of explorers or vikings ­ truth = people before them  ● Pleistocene Ice Age:  ○ Lower sea levels (glaciers)  ○ Glaciers retreat = Younger Dryas (13­11.5 kya)  ■ Climatic stress (cold/dry phase)  ○ Holocene = warmer/wetter  ■ Seasonal stable climates  ■ Sea level rose 110m/yr on average ­ fairly rapid  ● Beringia:  ○ Siberia and Bering Strait  ○ Open from 35­11 kya  ○ Land mass  ○ Still a lot of glaciers  ● Siberian Sites:  ○ Mamontouga Kurya ­ N. Siberia at 40 kya  ○ Yana RHS ­ E. Siberia at 32 kya  ■ Hunted mammoth, horse, wolf, musk­ox, bison, reindeer  ○ Dyuktai Cave ­ E. Siberia at 14 kya  ■ Wedge­shaped cores similar to ones in Alaska (10.7 kya)  ● DNA Evidence:  ○ Isolation in Alaska  ○ Split between Native Americans and NE Asians (20­25 kya)  ● Geography of Movement:  ○ Ice­free corridor opened 14 kya  ○ Coastal route to go around glaciers and move down coast  ● Early Sites:  ○ 1st human settlements in Alaska  ○ Bluefish Cave (15­12 kya)  ○ Swan Point (14 kya)  ○ Nenana Complex (10.7 kya) ­ teardrop­shaped points  ○ Denali Complex (11­11.8 kya) ­ wedge­shaped core and microblades  ○ Both similar to Siberian tools  ● Early Central Sites:  ○ Meadowcroft Rockshelter (~15 kya):  ■ Pennsylvania  ■ May represent migration before last glacial advance  ■ 700+ stone tools, pre­13.5 kya  ■ Used as a stop­site ­ not permanent  ○ Cactus Hill  ○ Topper Site  ● Early South American Site: Monteverde (~14 kya)  ○ Southern tip of S America  ○ Coastal route most likely  ○ Great preservation  ○ Huts and fireplaces (clay)  ● Marine Adaptations: Quebrada Jaguay (11.1 kya) and Tacahuay (10.7 kya)  ● Americas Summary:  ○ Eastern Siberia by 40 kya  ○ DNA evidence: NE Asians moved into N America by 20 kya and then separated  ○ DNA: a dispersal south of Beringia by 16 kya  ○ Pacific coast migration route open by 15 kya  ○ Monte Verde, Q. Tacahuay, and others suggest coastal adaptation soon after 15  kya  ○ Inland ice­free route corridor open by 14 kya  ○ Evidence from Meadowcroft Rockshelter and others support an initial migration  at this time (~14 kya) 


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