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Week 6 Notes ANTH 102

by: vscobee2

Week 6 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102


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About this Document

These notes cover Week 6 material - Peopling of the Americas and Mesolithic/Post-Glacial Foragers
Intro to Archaeology
Rory Dennison
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.

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Date Created: 05/01/16
Week 6 Notes ANTH 102  Peopling of the Americas  ● Clovis (11.2­10.5 kya):  ○ New Mexico  ○ Indigenous  ○ Distinctive, fluted points  ○ Best dated and most widespread of early Paleoindian  ○ Big­game hunters mainly  ○ Broad spectrum foragers  ○ Short phenomenon (~300 years)  ○ Adapted to hunt megafauna  ○ Decline of Clovis associated with disappearance of large game  ■ Debate over which caused which  ■ 3 Hypotheses:  ● 1. Overkill ­ human predation  ● 2. Climate change ­ climatic amelioration destroys favored habitats  of large game  ● 3. Seasonal contrast ­ climatic amelioration = greater seasonal  fluctuations which negatively impacted gestation periods of large  game animals  ○ Other fluted points ­ fishtail points (11­10 kya)  ● Folsom Culture (10.8­10.2 kya):  ○ New Mexico  ○ Bison hunters  ○ Large herd kills  ○ Hunting traps ­ run off cliffs and gullies  ○ Fluted points  ○ Descendants of Clovis?  ● Schaefer and Hebior Sites (14.5 kya):  ○ Mammoth kills  ○ Pre­Clovis  ● Arlington Springs Site (13 kya):  ○ Evidence for boat use  ○ Very early human remains  ● Paleoindians (15­10 kya):  ○ Ends with extinction of megafauna  ○ Clovis, pre­Clovis, Folsom, Western Stemmed, etc.  ● Late Pleistocene hunting and gathering  ○ Subsistence patterns ­ hunting/gathering  ○ Big game  ○ Mobil or settled ­ varied  ● Archaic Period (8­2 kya)  ○ Final retreat of glaciers  ○ Shift in resources  ○ More settled        Mesolithic and Post­Glacial Foragers  ● End of Pleistocene:  ○ Holocene 11 kya  ○ End of last Ice Age  ○ Climate change  ○ Megafauna extinction (35 mammal species die out)  ○ Human responses: intensification and diversification  ○ Shrinks shore lines  ● Doggerland (10 kya):  ○ Boxgrove, Sussex, England  ○ Former landmass  ○ Mesolithic inhabitants  ○ Connected England (surrounded it) to Europe  ○ Discovered in the 1930s  ○ Lush in warm periods and cold tundra in ice ages  ○ Water levels raised 8 kya  ■ People settled on new coastlines ­ chopped down woodland  ● Post­Glacial Behavior:  ○ Diverse food ­ small animals, fish, nuts  ○ Intensify technology  ○ Hunting/gathering:  ■ “Foraging”  ■ Natural resources  ■ Small, flexible groups (10­100 people)  ■ Flexible leadership  ■ Equality, kinship ­ few status differences  ■ Still practiced in NW Canada, SW California; parts of Africa and S  America  ■ Increased populations ­ massive spike with industrial revolution  ● Names for the same time period:  ○ Mesolithic ­ Europe, Asia, N Africa  ○ Archaic ­ Americas  ○ Late Stone Age ­ Central and S Africa  ● Mesolithic Developments:  ○ Ceramics:  ■ Used for food storage; cooking  ■ Ex. Jomon Period in Japan  ○ Metalworking:  ■ “Copper Age”  ■ Hammer metal into shapes (with heat)  ○ Subsistence Shift:  ■ Broad­spectrum diet  ■ Small animals and plant foods  ■ More marine resources ­ live more along coasts and rivers  ■ Early cultigens: something modified for humans; deliberately grown/  cultivated  ● Change species selectively for human use  ● Ex. bottle gourd  ○ Technology Specialization:  ■ Increased energy returns  ■ Weaponry ­ more diversity in point types  ■ Nets and traps  ■ Ground stone tools  ● Ground/polished into specific shape  ● Good for grinding food (nuts, seeds, etc.)  ■ Axes and adzes  ■ Basketry for traps and storage ­ easier for transport than pottery  ● Settlement Patterns:  ○ Scheduling: being in the place with the most resources at certain times of year  ○ Base camps  ○ Typical forager work week = 40­45 hours   


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