GEOL 1330 (Dr. Hauptvogel Spring '16) Lectures 18 & 19 - Coasltines & Tides
GEOL 1330 (Dr. Hauptvogel Spring '16) Lectures 18 & 19 - Coasltines & Tides GEOL 1330
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julian Quesada on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1330 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Daniel Hauptvogel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
GEOL 1330 LECTURE 18 – COASTLINE & LECTURE 19 - TIDES Waves -Top Hat Question -What is the net movement of water as a wave moves through the ocean? -Answer: No net movement -Ocean waves are caused by energy traveling at the ocean- atmosphere interface -Usually wind-driven -The water itself doesn’t travel forward but the wave form does -inside -Wavelength - the horizontal distance between two crests -Below a depth of 1/2 wavelength, water movement is no longer felt -Wavelength of 50ft, need to be 25ft deep to not feel the wave -If you are scuba diving in the ocean, you will not feel the effects of a storm passing on the surface -When a wave approaches the shore and the water depth is less than 1/2 the wavelength, wave behavior changes -Waves slowdown and increase in wavelength, causing waves to increase in height -Waves break when they reach a critical height -Why do we care about waves? -Waves are responsible for erosion along coastlines -The energy of waves crashing on the shore causes large quantities of sand to move along the beach or erosion of cliffs -Waves will bend (refract) if they encounter obstacles or structures -Waves become concentrated along the sides of the headland and cause erosion -Waves are weakened in the bays, allowing deposition -Longshore Drift - The net movement of waves to the coastline (angled) -Able to tell direction through deposition and erosion of beaches Coasts -Erosional Coasts are typically rugged and irregular -Steep slopes, cliffs, arches -Depositional coasts have spits, bars, barrier islands -Barrier Islands - islands that protect the mainland from wave action and storms -Can start as spits or large sand deposits during storms -Found along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts -Why aren't barrier islands found along the west coast? -The west coast has a subduction zone and the San Andreas Fault, it is too tectonically active Beach Intervention -Beach stabilization through jetties, groins, walls, and nourishment -Jetties: Main made structures that jet out into the ocean protect inlets from closing -Side of jetty facing longshore drift gets a large deposition of sand. On the opposite side, down current, the waves erode the beach and the sand is not replenished -Groin: Smaller versions of jetties -Sea Walls: Lose the beach during high tide, cause erosion in parts of beach not protected by wall. Protects land well against waves and hurricanes but not beaches. -Beach Nourishment: Take sand from elsewhere and deposit it where it is needed Physics of Tides -Tides are caused by the gravitation force of the moon and sun and the motion of the Earth -A planet orbits the sun in balance between gravity and inertia -(A) If the planet is not moving, gravity will pull it into the sun. -(B) If the planet is moving, the inertia of the planet will keep it moving in a straight line. -(C) In a stable orbit, gravity and inertia together cause the planet to travel in a fixed path -Centripetal (gravity) and centrifugal forced between Earth- Moon-Sun responsible for tides -Spring tide - higher high tide, lower low tide (when earth, sun and moon align) -Neap tides - low high tides, higher low tides (when earth and moon form a right angle with the sun) Highs and Lows -Tides are influenced by many factors, including shape of the coastline, configuration, -Semidiurnal tide - occurs twice in a lunar day (two high tides and two low tides each day, 4 total tides) -Diurnal tides - occur once each day (one high tide and one low tide each day , 2 total tides) -Mixed tides - describe a tidal pattern of significantly different heights through the cycle
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