PAM 2030, Week 13 Notes
PAM 2030, Week 13 Notes PAM 2030
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Population and Public Policy in Political Science at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 April 26, 2016 Integration of Immigrants into American Society o immigrant groups and host societies come to resemble each other two-way exchange o measured across time and intergenerationally o across various dimensions: socioeconomic outcomes and participation in social institutions social acceptance effects on well-being the dimensions: socioeconomic o poverty poverty rates higher for foreign born poverty generally declines over generations 18% >> 13.6% >> 11.5% racial and ethnic disparities first generation Hispanics highest rates but progress between first and second generations o note: Hispanics have highest rates of intermarriage which may lead to generations that no longer identity as hispanic rise in black second generation Asian stalling between second and third generations o Asians tend to have lower poverty rates overall o education: second generation achieve higher education o income: foreign born earn less, women earn less still o employment immigrant men have higher employment rates than native born; immigrant women lower least educated immigrant much more likely to be employed than comparable native born men second+ generation employment rates vary by race/ethnicity and gender o occupation similar positive trajectories as employment and earnings second generation women narrowing gap faster than men US workforce welcoming immigrants and second generation across occupational spectrum spatial o CA, TX, NY, IL, FL, NJ has the highest immigration growth in the last decade or so sociocultural o language: majority of foreign born speak English ‘Well’ or ‘Very Well’ o religion health o declines in well-being health, crime, and children in two-parent households immigrants have better health outcomes, but less access to health care and insurance less likely to commit crime, incarcerated at ¼ rate of native-born immigrants less likely to divorce, immigrant children more likely to live with both parents over time and generations these advantages decline as second and third+ generations converge with native-born political o can they/did they vote familial o Areas of concern (more research needed) legal status foreign born %s o 26.3% of foreign born are undocumented o 69.2% are permanent immigrants o “Temporary and discretionary legal residents” = refugees key factor in integration trajectory many statuses are transitional and temporary disproportionately impacts certain immigrant groups undocumented status slows but does not fully impeded integration variation from state-to-state multi-generational effects racial and ethnic disparities naturalization rates citizenship rate in US 50% vs. 61% OECD average adjusting for undocumented population, still well below Canada, Australia, Sweden most immigrants want to naturalize birthright citizenship is a powerful mechanism of integration major barrier to political integration April 28, 2016 iclicker: C, intergenerational mobility looks at the socioeconomic mobility between generations Poverty o 45 million Americans are poor are they takers? victims? o public view of causes individualistic (personal choices) structuralist (result of circumstances) fatalistic (it’s gonna happen, can’t do anything) o importance of knowing size and characteristics of the poor population eligibility for programs SNAP, WIC, housing subsidies, EITC, etc targeting communities, people, groups social indicator (like GNP) – e.g. poor kids become poor adults o Definition World Bank’s definition poverty line: consumption/income level that falls below sme minimum level necessary to meet basic needs varies by time and place US poverty definition income adequacy o absolute poverty: income less than an official poverty line o relative poverty: income less than a significant percentage of the US OMB Directive 14 o income thresholds vary by family size, composition o before taxes Mollie Orshansky cost of nutritionally adequate diet x3 (assuming a third of income goes to food today, this calculation is supplemented by the supplemental poverty measure o Variation in rates: the poor are… more children than elderly more black, Hispanics than Asians or whites family structure (married, male householder families do better) more women than men o measurement shortcomings consumption varies geography ignored doesn’t consider government assistance (in kind benefits) questions about defining the consumption unit family vs. household doesn’t consider chronic/persistent poverty low correlation with material hardship o alternative measures relative poverty and how it leads to social exclusion resources, rights, goods and services, participation in normal relationships SPM (Supplemental poverty measure) represents the amount of money spent on FCSU (food clothing shelter utilities) and additional amounts for other goods (ex. hygiene) considers noncash benefits includes taxes, childcare
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