Modern European History Notes 12
Modern European History Notes 12 HIST 3480
Popular in Introduction to Modern Europe
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Holub on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3480 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Richard Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Europe in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Paige DeWitt-Holub “Cold War, 1947-92 De-Nazification Operation Paperclip Marshall Plan, 1948-51 Comecon Nato, 1949 Warsaw Pact, 1955 De-Colonization, 1945-75 1 Stalinism, 1945-53.” -about 50 million dead, probably more on civilian side… -the Soviet Union has about 25 million dead, Germany has about 9 million dead, Japan about 3 million were dead, which is interesting -China 15-20 million -Poland – 5.5 million, UK 450,000 dead, U.S. dead 390,000 dead -more wounded -most destructive war fought at any time -in the context of the Cold War we will find today’s discussion -traditionally recognized as 1947-92 -Britain is heavily damaged by the German bombing, London and Manchester are severely bombed, to walk over the continent leads to ultimate destruction in some places, a line through Paris, France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Poland, Moscow, many miles of eradicated lands -WWII is a ram charge of deathly Hitler’s Nazi Germany and Moscow Communism barely alive -good and bad modern-age superpowers, simplistic minded patriotism -homelessness of 25 million in Russia, vs. U.S. 2x economic expansion due to military build-up -Gross National Product – the U.S. was in fact the only industrial economy in tact after the war -(Japan’s industrial economy suffered) -during the war, there were many conflicts between the British, SU, and Europe about what the post-WWII globe would look like… -projected 3 sphere, British were supposed to get the Eastern Ukrainian -U.S. get the west of central, western Europe -Russia gets eastern 1 Please note that all quotations are taken from the board of Professor Smith. -the expense of ensuring a maintenance of the majority of the once-stabled countries post-war seemed unrealistic with the lack of $$ -“tri-partied post world war” -de-Nazification, Stalin and the rest encouraged the ridding of all Nazi aspects -when the war ended, the efforts to eradicate of this toxic ideology was to control the mid-level bureaucratic individuals -46-47, the cold war, the denazification comes to an end, but not quite in western Germany (part occupied by Allies), this process is given to the West- German Courts to affect this, but these Courts were still inhabited by Nazis -the problem with Nazism and Germany at the World War was that many of the people that the world wanted to have run Germany, reflect Germany, were Nazi-influenced and still in power -the Soviets continued to protest about the lack of progress -during the Korean War in the 1950’s the Soviet Union was completely dissatisfied with the still present Nazis, and the composition was seen as propaganda in the Americas, -however, if you wanted someone who knew a little bit about what they were talking about, then you would need to have someone trained in the governmental functioning, despite what regime they were in -the Western German Army in 1951, has 150+ top colonels and army generals, all but one had been a part of Hitler’s regimes -the West understood the Soviets as complaining about their lack of victory as well -the West wanted to understand the scientific strides (V-2 Rockets, Operation Paperclip – Nazi scientists brought to the U.S. to make strides in this, not that Washington was Neo-Nazi material, but they knew this was an unprecedented level of fast-paced technological advantages so they wanted to pick their brains) -De-Nazification does not get much farther -What does the rest of the world/America want? -Russians actually reach Berlin before the French and British, but within a year there is a western foreign control where all four powers has some aspect of control over Berlin -Stalin wanted a guarantee that Germany would not build-up its army yet again and invade the Soviet Union again -what Stalin knew is that the Soviet Union had been invaded by the French in 1812, Germany in 1915, and even the Nazis – he was paranoid and projecting the fear of invasion unto his international demand for control over the Germany territory -during the war itself, the United States had sent aid to the Soviet Union to keep this war a two-front war -what is frequently overlooked, is that if you look at world war II, and were Germany has the majority of its divisions is that most of those on the “Eastern Front” -1947- “friendly” established communist party governments are established near the contested area -by 1943, the eastern Europe/Soviet Union area represents an initial demand by Stalin to increase that influence of communism -Marshall Plan, 1948-51 – Stalin wants security, a territorial buffer -the conversation in America was a concern about access to markets after their industry -during the war, both in Italy and in Germany, the major political parties were imbedded in Hitlerism and Stalinism -the Socials and Communist parties of surrounding European States, brought a lack of credit to major political parties who political strayed -the original political parties were brought back together, but they also had to avoid the resembling takeover of communism and socialism – U.S. Feds. -Elections in 1948 in Italy – two dominant Italian Socialist/Communisms – scary idea for a democratic election into an unimaginable resulting change in government -the U.S. State Department in D.C. brought about a campaign about the implications that voting the wrong way would drop all foreign food aid -Pope said that if you vote for a communist, you will be excommunicated from the church -Time Magazine article in Italian -what Washington wants is the governments to remain “friendly” enough to create partnerships (nice democracies, Saudi Arabia) -if one denies “Wall Street” of access to markets, then this is causality for war -Germany had the largest air force still, but this was not Stalin’s intention nor Germany’s threat to march onto Berlin at the time -Soviets steal the Atomic Bomb plan from America in 1951 -1945, they do not have the bomb, many wanted to encourage going all the way to conquest of Moscow -the “Marshall Plan” – there is some regrowth in America before, but numerically, this plan included -$13 billion dollars (more now) -the French get 6%+ gross national product loans, Italians 5+% GNP, British 2.5% and they get a separate set of loans a bit later -the idea is to help the Europeans re-build their economy -helping jump-start the economy does 2 things: -recreates a demand for American economies -makes this idea more successful of recreating markets, even against Marxism -“post-war economic cooperation” -allows the United States to access these markets -1952, ECSC – European Coal and Steal Community – signified the emergence of France and Germany as a new economic established partnership -Britain opposed weakly -1958, the European Economic Community (not the European Union) -less trade barriers, more established rules -France, Italy, Western Germany, Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands (not the British) -the Soviets are not amused, and they try to do the same thing with Comicon – the Soviet lands are too poor to fix large-scale problems -on the military side, the formation of NATO – Western Germany, Britain, Canada -the re-arming of Western Germany, under NATO, which makes Stalin more paranoid and the rest of the world (?) -Soviet-Warsaw Pact, does not include Romania, Yugoslavia, the rest -Face-off between these two armed groups -Afghanistan is where NATO troops are probably found today -“security pact” aimed at the S.U. – not there today, even though Putin is -the NATO purpose is extended to other perceived threats -decolonization, 1947-75 – the end of the war does not necessarily signify the end of colonial reigns, eventually colonies (British India, almost all of Africa (Portuguese give up ***Mozambique in 1975) -the many countries looked up to “Washington, Lincoln, the American Experiment” in many areas were considered to be very important -third-world Nationalism – in places like Guatemala could be reinterpreted as communist SUBVERSION -third-world colonies break away from Britain, Spain, Portugal, etc. and some aspects are quite bloody and some not at all, the French break-up is not encouraged (U.S. says hang on to Algeria, the Islands – eventually bloody) -access to markets, the British empires (India briefly), the U.S. wanted access to those colonial markets -the discussions had gone on during the entire war, post-war the realization that the aid needed to also maintain trade access $$$ for U.S. -the problem for the U.S. is that third world nationalism was pretty independent-minded, not uniform, too radical------------ relentless Vietnam -1975, the British still have the Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Bermuda -Falkland Islands -maybe small areas somewhere else -still the most productive economies in the world -place to find the stuff otherwise you’re back to the Great Depression -when the war ended, the Soviet Union was a great mess, and as the Cold War began, Stalin was not provided with an army, refrigeration, housing -participate in an arms race ? again ? ----- this is what Stalin liked the most -guns, bombs -Iron Curtain, supposedly descends the Soviet Union – does not want about the lifestyles of European washing machines and cars, and America’s 1950’s -Stalin did not want to study the level of this either, so censorship, Secret Police, Gulags, inside the Soviet Union block everything, mutate Marxist idea of an egalitarian, worker’s state -the “Communist” elite lived relatively good lives – compared to ordinary Soviets they had good housing, perhaps cars, food – not a huge distinction in recruiting of the class of corrupt Secret Police -kept to one side -the Soviet Union was about 30 years behind (no average person had a sewing machine, washing machine, grey colorless concrete blocks) -Soviet elections, one candidate, about 98% of the votes (2% lucky), called their leaders president -perhaps today if you’re America’s friend you get called something pleasant and promotional, rather than something awful and damaging -Stalin definitely expects German tanks to march over the lands again and do this -the relaxation occurs in the Soviet Union – Kruschev, 1950’s – wanted access to Western science/technology, to build up society -“cracks” in the Iron Curtain – cannot have people running about and seeing what is out there “Berlin Wall, 1989 Soviet Union, Dec., 1991 Mikhail Gorbachev (1931- ) Perestroika Putin (1951 - _ 1994, 82% B.Yelisen (1931-2007) Duma, 1993 Elections GDP Shock Therapy Population Germany, 1990 NATIO E. European Ukraine, February, 2014 Crimea” -The economy of the Soviet Union, and of Eastern Europe, actually grew pretty well- more rapidly than the U.S. economy in the 60’s and 70’s the U.S. economic growth rate was growing rapidly but still slowing down -the system of “central planning” was lacking, as there was no market economy -if they had computers in the 1980’s maybe things would have been better -12 million glass bottles would appear to reach the goal, perhaps the bottles were 6 months late, with many bottle caps, and no one working -Soviet Union collapses not just because of improper economic handling, but because the Iron Curtain falls -spontaneity – (only maybe like Revolutions of 1848 – local rebellions except England and Russia) -spontaneous rebellions very much so non-violent, not massive social rebellions (Romania, Yugoslavia (Civil War), Czech, Lithuania (Civil disobedience rather than bloodshed) -in the western world, in London and else, absolutely no one else saw these little uprisings and demonstrations -President Bush did not predict this, if something was so deviant in the Soviet Union, then historically something should have initiated this rebellion -Question: “Why doesn’t the Soviet Union intervene?” -1968- ended Prague Spring, Intervened in Poland in 1980’s Sovereignty in question’ -this time, the Soviet Unions go back home -Do empires inevitably “liquidate”? -the collapse of the Soviet Union, in particular, does not have much to do with popular dissent/discomfort, but a “REVOLUTION FROM ABOVE” -not a French Revolution or Popular Rebellion -old elites seize power -1948- the Soviet Bureaucrats (1%, 5%) no illusions about the Marxist/Classist society, but the status quo was deemed most pertinent in keeping their own resources, wealth, corruption afloat -to better their own lives -by the 1980’s, Soviet economy is slowing down considerably, and Mikhail Gorbachev (1931 - ) -Perestroika attempts to inject elements of the Soviet economy to make this more competitive -the Soviet Union had elections (50’s-70’s one candidate) -only a few percentages off if someone wanted to spoil their economics -Mikhail Gorbachev (1931- ), let’s update this -by the 1980’s, the Soviet Union elite concluded that Gorbachev was an interest threat for the elites-they wanted to abandon communism, in exchange for capitalism (profit/property of the Soviet Union turns to private property) -all organizational outputs are managed by the state, so this idea is interesting and then Gorbachev -reason why the Soviets don’t send military arms to Budapest, Berlin, etc. when you are beginning to fight for your property rights -were the Soviets suddenly pacifists who did not want to conquest the Soviet Union again? NO. -The “new” Russian elite, with the three central elements of the Russian elite, were centered around capitalist elements of the area -former communist members, many are drawn from the state bureaucratic elite -functionaries like Boris Yeltsin -“Black Market Operators” -one of these people are Vlad Putin -in 1994, 92% of the major members of the “New Russian Elite” (referred to themselves as Democratic Capitalists) were also the “Old Russian Elite” (Bureaucratic Communists) -in the early 1990’s, there were multiple political parties in the Soviet Union, if you look at who managed the major political parties of the old elite also ran the new -a REVOLUTION FROM ABOVE does not change -in the 1980’s, everything but the toothpaste and tp is owned by the state -what the goal of converting public/state goods property is to change this to privately owned property -(“fake” lotteries) oligarchs end up with the reasoning of using existing power to claim, chop up- collectively they owned things previously, but now they are singular in this -there is a great deal of ” violence in this without a recipe “ -“Duma” (elites), Boris Yeltsin (other elites)(1931-2007) took over -Officially collapses, but violent battles between Yeltsin and the Duma is a lot -by the 1990’s the “Communist Party” is no longer striking like the old, but still exists -in 1993, Yeltsin and the political parties could not come to an agreement about anything -Yeltsin dismissed the Duma and begin to rule by decree in 1993 -Duma building is referred to as the “White House” -how does Yeltsin dismiss? Rolled a tank at the Duma, killed a few dozen- ended stuff -democratic, massive food fight from different factions about who is going to have the biggest -have elections in the Fall, Political Parties, political parties all controlled by the elite -elections are driven by $MONEY, advertising, television -the democracy was continuously undermined -tens of millions of advertisement money in schemes to promote Yeltsin yet again and he won the 1996 election -at the time, the New York Times/Denver Post, the commentary was speculative but this was very much so unlike the Soviet Union’s practices -what happens to the economy and society in the 1990’s? the somewhat advanced Russian industry is shifted back to a large 3 world country, large mineral collects, many nukes, poverty, lack of industry that they were just 20 years ago -“Shock Therapy” – Jeffrey Sachs, he would help repudiate what was done in the 1990’s the discussion of prices and wages, during this time, prices were supposed to level out naturally, but then the prices go up and up again in the 1990’s -Is the new Russian elite investing money in the “New Economy” in the 1990’s? Not really. Mostly offshoring money – in the Greek area -Yeltsin family is a huge beneficiary -“GDP is falling like an elevator in a free-fall.” -in the late 1990’s, Russia is in a huge Great Depression -the Middle Class is dead now, probably as small as the elites -connection of the crash of the Asian Tigers (Taiwan, South Korea, Thailand) -dip in the financial crisis for U.S. crash is when the world falls down -the major fall of the industrial powers of the world made everyone desire a stable Russia, in Washington, but this didn’t happen, because the competitive market of the Russians was not -the foreign competition, about 10-20% of automobiles go unpurchased -the people who were failing in Russia provided a positive for those who were in America -Russia exports gold, Uranium, oil – but they are de-industrialized in that they don’t make much for themselves -1991, 1995 – the Soviet Union collapses, in 1991, the richest 10% had incomes 5x as much as those in the poorest, by 1995, the richest percent had incomes 35%x as much as that as those of the lower percentage -pensioners, people on fixed incomes failed -the older generation who retired then, pretty much people in 60’s and 70’s were ceased -many people froze to death -prices through the roof -75% of the population in Russia was about below the poverty line, the middle class small, money left or went to the top, and now Russia is much poorer -the life-expectancy in the 1990’s did fall rapidly, now maybe it is better -the medical system pretty much stops, the return of TB, Aids, Alcoholism – lower life-expectancy -the Soviet Educational System started to unravel -Putin doesn’t spend much on school systems, but they are still educated -Putin has “sham elections” – Russian Nationalism grows -Massive social shift in 1991? For a first certain segment of the middle class, there is a liberating movement – like the 60’s/70’s of here -couldn’t really afford to go to America or immigrate anywhere on a large scale Germany, 1990 – the Eastern aspect was discussed to be unified by diplomats, Gorbachev still there -the U.S. government, when Germany re-expands, they will not go into Eastern Germany, if the Soviet Union collapsed -within a couple years, NATO army men and tankers went from Poland to Albania and pretty much everywhere but Hungary -no NATO expansion to Ukraine, Minsk -Ukraine had kind of elections in the 1990’s, more or less had proper elections, wanted to return to February in 2014, was caught between Russian and Western influence and the Germans had a hold on the markets of that area -in 2014, the Ukraine had elections that tilted towards Russia, unpopular Yanukovych, rebellion in the streets and the government is overthrow and Yanukovych leaves -the influence of Washington D.C., the details are murky, Victoria Newland diplomat -Newland wanted to accept the new government that had taken over after the rebellion, wanted NATO troops to, Germany/ Merkel rejected -Victoria Newland responded, French didn’t like it, so she said we don’t care about Europeans we are going to pull the Ukraine from the Russians, has since been elections in the Ukraine -now Petro -Crimea, Russia’s seaports, Putin sent their tank into the sea, and now the sea is about 2/3 Russia speakers -Russian press does not cover the Coup D’états in the Crimean Sea -Ukraine, no Russian tanks, probably Russian soldiers and young men -Ukraine language only policy … -the Ukraine got rid of their nukes -Barrack Obama announced that the U.S. and NATO are going to 4x Ukrainian, Latvian, and Polish spending
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